In English

Research Types and Methods - Congregational Studies


Bradford School of Management, "Introduction to Research and Research Methods"
A genereal introduction to the academic principles of research and research methods. Download.

Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Methodological tools for the Study of Congregations
This website gives access to the following tools: "Researching a congregation using Web resources", "Congregational Survey Question Bank", "Congregational Observational Guides" and "Resources for research methodology". Download.

Literature on congregational and church research - in English


Ammerman,Nancy T.,  Jackson W. Carroll, Carl S. Dudley & William McKinney, eds., Studying Congregations. A New Handbook. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1998

Congregational Observational Guides

Guest, Mathew & Karin Tusting and Linda Woodhead (eds.), Congregational Studies in the UK: Christianity in a Post-Christian Context (Explorations in Practical, Pastoral and Empirical Theology) Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Get access to chapter one of the book. "Congregational Studies: Taking Stock". Download.

Hegstad, Harald, From Congregational Studies to Congregational Development. On the Different Modes of Ecclesiology (2010)

Hopewell, James F. 1988. Congregation: Stories and Structures. London: SCM Press (Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1987)


Links for Congregational Studies

Catecumenate - Introduction into the Christian Faith


Catecumenate comes from Greek, "katechein" , and means guiding and training or educating. The Catecumenate may be described as a journey of faith, where poeple are are offered education and information and training in preparation for baptism, confirmation or renewal of baptism wows.


1. General

Online litterature

Senn, Frank C., "A Catechism on the Catechumenate" (1998)

A lutheran (ELCA) text explaining the Lutheran catechumenate. Download .

Duckworth, Jessicah L. K., "Conversion and Catechesis in the Community of Faith: Examining the Catechumenate in Eight ELCA Congregations"
A Lutheran paper on catechesis.

General Directory for Catechesis (1997)
Katolsk vejlending om katekese. Download .

Senn, Frank C., "A Catechism for the Catechumenate". Lutheran Forum, 1998).
An interview with the pastor of Immanuel Lutheran Church (ELCA) in Evanston about adult catechumenate. Download.

Ward, Karen M., "Making Adult Disciples: Rite for Our Times" (Christian Century, March 24, 1999)
K. M. Ward, who is " associate director of worship for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, headquartered in Chicago" explores how mainline churches these years are reviving the ancient cathecumenate traditions of initating adults into the Christian faith and the Church. Download.

"Selected Catechumenate Resources from the North American Association for the Catechumenate ( from the Allegheny Synod Bishop’s Convocation" (2004)
En meget omfattende litteraturliste om katekumenat. Download.

"To be a Christian in Finland. A guidebook to Confirmation for Immigrants and Finnish Expatriates" (2006)
Udgivet af den finske lutherske kirke. Download.

Wikipedia, "Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults"
The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (often abbreviated RCIA) is the process through which interested adults are gradually introduced to the Roman Catholic faith and way of life. Download.



CIBEDO ist die Fachstelle der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz mit der Aufgabe, den interreligiösen Dialog zwischen Christentum und Islam, sowie das Zusammenleben von Christen und Muslimen zu fördern. CIBEDO ist die Abkürzung für "Christlich-islamische Begegnung - und Dokumentationsstelle" in Frankfurt am Main.Besøg hjemmesiden

The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults Resource Site
Listed on this site are a series of documents on topics that are covered during the course of an RCIA process. Visit the website.


2. For people with Muslim Background

Online litterature

CIBEDO: "Muslime in Deutschland: Teil II: Einzelfragen. Konversion/Taufe"

Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirkche Hannovers, "Zweisprachige Unterlage für den Taufenunterricht"

Katholische Glaubensinformation, Islam und Christentum: Eine Gesprächshilfe

Katholische Glaubensinformation, Hinfürhrung zur Glaube

Sinclair, Michael, "Nine Bible Studies for Muslim Seekers. Preparing the Ground and Proclaiming the Gospel"
"The 49 page word document includes a short description of the study and an outline of points to bring up in each passage specifically for Muslims.  Also at the end of each study is the Qur'anic account of each story or passage".  Download.

Troll,  Christian W., Muslims Ask, Christians Answer
This homepage offers you the opportunity to read online the book „ Muslims ask, Christians answer". In addition the homepage shall list further questions from readers concerning the book and about Christianity and Christian-Muslim Relations in general, together with answers to these. Download.

E-book in Progress: Rublev-
"A Missiology of Guesting"

I hereby invite all interested readers to comment on and discuss and contribute to a new writing project. I am in the process of writing an e-book or e-article entiteled "A Missiology of Guesting". Here try to explore the metaphor of being a guest in order to develop a missiological approach that may be relevant in a post-Christendom context. It is a follow-up on my article "A Missiology of Listening for a Folk Church in a Post Modern Context" in Emma Wild-Wood & Peniel Rajkumar (eds.), Foundations for Mission. Regnum Edinburgh Centenary Series Volume 13, pp. 190-204 (Oxford: Regnum, 2012).

Please, post you comments here where each new chapter will be published:


 1. Mission as Hospitality - and Guesting? 

Hospitality is a well-known metaphor for mission.[1] In the new WCC mission document it is stated that
"To the extent that the church practises radical hospitality to the estranged in society, it demonstrates commitment to embodying the values of the reign of God (Isaiah 58:6). …. God’s hospitality calls us to move beyond binary notions of culturally dominant groups as hosts, and migrant and minority peoples as guests. Instead, in God’s hospitality, God is host and we are all invited by the Spirit to participate with humility and mutuality in God’s mission."[2]
God is our host and we are his guests. The Danish theologian and hymn writer N. F. S. Grundtvig calls the church a “guest chamber”.[3] God’s hospitality – God being the host – motivates and inspires us to participate in a mission of hospitality where we in the church welcome people and extend God’s hospitality to them. Together with them we are all guests of our Lord, seated at the same table.
The host/hospitality metaphor reveals many important aspects of the mission of God and the misson of the church, but I n this chapter, however, I intend to approach the host-guest relationship from another angle and pursue “guesting” or “being a guest” as a metaphor for mission in the hope that this metaphor may reveal other missionals aspects of mission that might be pertinent to the our postmodern Danish context. God as guest, Jesus as guest, the missionary as guest.
1] See for instance: Julius Gathogo, "African Hospitality form a Missiogical Perspective: Aiding Church and Societal Growth" (2011).

[2] Together towards life: mission and evangelism in changing landscapes. Proposal for a new WCC Affirmation on Mission and Evangelism. Submitted by the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism (CWME) (September 2012). Accessed at .
[3] In the hymn from 1825, revised in 1853, ”Tør nogen ihukomme”.
”Huset med de høje sale
tømres kun af skaberhånd,
må fra Himmelen neddale
som til støvet Herrens Ånd;
vi af bløde bøgestammer,
under nattergalesang,
bygge kun et gæstekammer
til en himmelsk altergang.”

2. God as Host - and Guest?

God is the creator, and we are all his creatures. God the creator is our host and all is creatures are invited to his table as guests. But are we justified in conceiving God also as the guest, as the guest of his own creatures?
When the salvation history takes off through the calling of Abraham, through whom ”all the peoples on earth will be blessed” (Gen 12,3), God appears in the process to Abraham in the persons of three guests. "The Lord appeared to Abraham near the great trees of Mamre while he was sitting at the entrance to his tent in the heat of the day. Abraham looked up and saw three men standing nearby"(Gen 18,1-2).
Abraham welcomed them as any good host would do and treated them as his guests. He had their feet washed and offered them the best food he had. In the context of being a guest of Abraham ”the Lord said, ”I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sara your wife will have a son” (Gen18,10).[1]
When God’s promise about blessing to all people through his descendants was fulfilled and a saviour was born in the family of Mary and Joseph, the encounter of the Son of God with the world was – as a guest in a stable in Bethlehem. Shortly afterwards the holy family realised that king Herod did not welcome them in his kingdom so they had to flee to Egypt and stay there for some time as refugees and guests.
Although Jesus was the Son of God, and could have approached his creation and creatures as their creator and lord, he did not impose himself on people but offered himself as  a guest, someone they could receive and welcome or freely reject him. The evangelist John reflects on this when he writes that "He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognise him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. Yet to all who received him … (John 1,10-12).
Throughout his ministry, Jesus ministered to people from the position of a guest. When somebody came to him and said that he wanted to follow him wherever he would go, Jesus pointed to his way of life: ”Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nest, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head” (Matt 8,20). Apparently, Jesus was always the guest in someone’s house. We know that he often was the guest in the house of the siblings Mary, Martha and Lazarus (Luke 10,38ff), and we hear about him visiting many other houses. He seems to consciously be placing himself in a position of dependence on the hospitality of others.
When Jesus encounters the woman at the well in Samaria, he approaches her as her guest and asks her,  ”Will you give me a drink?” and thereby treating her as if she was him host. As a guest he shows her respect although she is a Samaritan and he belongs to the Jewish people who would normally consider themselves to be superior to the Samaritans. It seems that by making her his host he succeeded in initiating a very open conversation with her about sensitive issues of her personal life and of faith in God.
At the beginning of the history of salvation, the Lord appeared to Abraham as a guest, and at the climax of the history of salvation, the resurrected Lord appeared to two of his discouraged disciples on their way from Jerusalem to Emmaus as a stranger whom they ask to be their guest at a meal. As a guest he does not impose himself on them but listens to them and asks them questions – and then shares his insight with them.  During the meal when Jesus breaks the bread and gives thanks, however, they realise that their guest was the resurrected Lord (Luke 24,13-32).
Jesus met the disciples on the way to Emmaus as a stranger and a guest, but he ended up acting as their host when he broke the bread. This reflects a key event in the ministry of Jesus where he also acted as the host, namely the Lord’s Supper where Jesus is truly the host and his disciples are his guests. As Abraham washed the feet of his three guests in Mamre and gave them a meal, in the same way Jesus washes the feet of his disciples/guests and shares a meal with them (John 13).
The Lord is of course our creator and as creatures we are the guests in his world. The Lord is our Saviour who in his grace invites us to be his guests at his table. But a closer reading of the Old and in particular the New Testament reveals that God as our guest is a very significant theme in the salvation history.

It is noteworthy that the biblical idea of God as our guest has found a strong resonance in The Danish Hymnbook ("Den Danske Salmebog" DS, 2009). In about 30 of the 792 hymns, God (in most hymns the references are to Jesus, but in a few the reference is to the Holy Spirit) is referred to in guest-terminology. The incarnation is described in terms of guesting. Thomas Kingo states that God has broken out of his heavenly abode to become the guest of the world (DS 124,1).  And N. F. S. Grundtvig says that Jesus has come to us as guest for the sake of our salvation (DS 81,4). B.S. Ingemann in his Christmas hymns sings about the joy brought about by the creator visiting his creation.

Joy is our guest on earth this day,
the littel King of  creation!
Come, sparrow and dove, fly down and stay
to join in our celebration.
Dance on your mohter’s lap, dear child!
a wondrous day has arisen:
today He is born, our Saviour mild –
the pathway to Paradise given.[2]

Kingo refers to Jesus being a guest at the wedding of Canaan as a reminder that Jesus also wants to be the guest and bless marriages today (DS 144). Grundtvig calls the Holy Spirit our counsellor or adviser who is the honorouble guest of our heart (DS 305,2).

In Jesus parable about judgment day Jesus identifies himself with the stranger who needs to be welcomed as a guest. Jesus says: “… I was hungry and you gave me something to eat. I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink. I was a stranger and you invited me in” (Matt 25,35f). And in the Book of Revelation Jesus is reported to have said to the Church in Laodicea, and it also may summarise his guest-approach to ministry in general: “Here I am! I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in and eat with him, and he with me” (Rev 3,20).
At the end of his earthly ministry Jesus said to his disciples: “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you” (John 20,21). The sending of Jesus by his father implied a ministry of guesting. The question is, if guesting is also a key component of the ministry and mission of the church?

[1] God appeared as a guest (or rather three guests) when announcing a message of salvation (the promise of son) to Abraham, and God similarly seems to have appeared as a guest (or rather two guests) when announcing judgment (upon the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) to Lot (Gen19,1-21).
[2] Verse 2 of ”Julen har bragt velsignet bud” translated by Edward Broadbridge into English in Hymns in English. A Selection of Hymns from The Danish Hymnbook (2009), p. 28).

3. Sent to Be Guests

In his book ”Transforming Mission” (1992) David Bosch has identified six historical paradigms of mission and in each period ”there was a tendency to take one specific biblical verse as the missionary text” (Bosch 1992:339). E.g, in the patristic understanding (the Eastern Church) it was John 3,16, in the medieval Roman Catholic missionary period it was Luke 14,23 and in the Protestant Reformation focused on Rom 1,16f. Mission in the wake of Enlightenment – i.e., in the modern missionary period – the text that was most often referred to is the so-called ”Great Commission” of Matt 28,18-20.

”All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age”.

This text has no doubt inspired and mobilised many for genuine mission, but interpreted in the light of the dominant thinking in the Enlightenment period and the colonial situation this missionary this text was often understood in a way that confirmed a Western/Christian feeling of superiority. It was tempting to focus on the aspect of authority and obedience and on a one-way communication (”teaching them to obey”).

In the last part of the book ”Toward a Relevant Missiology”, Bosch discusses ”Elements of an Emerging Ecumenical Missionary Paradigm” and here he highlights many aspects that have to be taken into consideration when developing not the postmodern ecumenical missionary paradigm, but – i think – the variety of mission paradigms we need for today.

In a post-Christendom and increasing multi-religious society – such as the Danish society and most other Western societies – the Church is loosing power and Christianity is becoming one among many religious options. The Church is not longer at the centre of society and its attraction is diminishing. Fewer and fewer people respond when the church bells call people to church on Sundays. The context in which we live sometimes blind us to certain texts in the bible and help us to see the relevance of others. Maybe it is the increasing marginalisation of church and Christianity that has helped some to see the exemplary relevance of stories in Old as well as New Testament about God who approaches our world as a guest – and to see texts such as Luke 9,1-9 (parr. Matt 10,5-15, Mark 67-13) and 10,1-16 as challenging missionary texts for today.

As it was shown in the previous chapter, in his sending by his father to the world he saw himself as a guest of those to whom he was sent to minister. Thereby he set an example for his disciples who had followed him and participated in his “guesting”. When Jesus sent out the 12 and the 72 they were sent with his authority to preach the kingdom and to heal the sick. What is often overlooked, however, is the way he sends them. They are not sent out as a well-equipped army, but they are sent out empty handed. “Take nothing for the journey – no staff, no bag, no bread, no money, no extra tunic” (Luke 9,2). The explanation is that they are sent as – guests, which means that they would be depending not on their own resources but on their hosts to whom they were sent to minister. And they were supposed to behave like good guests: When they entered a house they should convey “Peace to this house“. And they should “Stay in that house, eating and drinking whatever they give you, for the worker deserves his wages”. The disciples of Jesus were to carry out their missionary ministry of preaching the kingdom of god and of healing the sick as the guests of those they were ministering to.

There are examples of a continuation of the ministry of guesting among the disciples after the ascension of Jesus. In Acts of the Apostles we read about Peter who is the guest of Simon the tanner in Joppa, when  (Acts 9:43 & 10:6), when the Roman centurion Cornelius invites him to stay in his house in Caesarea. The surprising aspect of Peter’s accept of the hospitality of Cornelius is that he is Roman soldier, who is not a Jew. What convinced Peter to do so was the vision God gave him while he was still a guest in the house of Simon the tanner, a vision that helped him re realize that he “should not call any man unclean or impure” (Acts 10,28). His acceptance of the hospitality of this gentile bridges the gap between Jews and gentiles and becomes the vehicle for the evangelisation of gentiles: as the guest in Cornelius’ house he shares the gospel with Cornelius and the others in the house and the Holy Spirit falls upon them and they are baptised.[1]

In many missiological books and articles the missiological significance of hospitality has been explored and analysed. What is needed, however, is to reflect more deeply about the missiological significance of guesting.

[1] Andrew Arterbury, ”Entertaining Angels: Hospitality in Luke and Acts” (Center for Christian Ethics at Baylor University, 2007)


Online Litterature on Intercultural Issues


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