In English

Research Types and Methods - Congregational Studies


Bradford School of Management, "Introduction to Research and Research Methods"
A genereal introduction to the academic principles of research and research methods. Download.

Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Methodological tools for the Study of Congregations
This website gives access to the following tools: "Researching a congregation using Web resources", "Congregational Survey Question Bank", "Congregational Observational Guides" and "Resources for research methodology". Download.

Literature on congregational and church research - in English


Ammerman,Nancy T.,  Jackson W. Carroll, Carl S. Dudley & William McKinney, eds., Studying Congregations. A New Handbook. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1998

Congregational Observational Guides

Guest, Mathew & Karin Tusting and Linda Woodhead (eds.), Congregational Studies in the UK: Christianity in a Post-Christian Context (Explorations in Practical, Pastoral and Empirical Theology) Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Get access to chapter one of the book. "Congregational Studies: Taking Stock". Download.

Hegstad, Harald, From Congregational Studies to Congregational Development. On the Different Modes of Ecclesiology (2010)

Hopewell, James F. 1988. Congregation: Stories and Structures. London: SCM Press (Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1987)


Links for Congregational Studies

E-book in Progress: Rublev-
"A Missiology of Guesting"

I hereby invite all interested readers to comment on and discuss and contribute to a new writing project. I am in the process of writing an e-book or e-article entiteled "A Missiology of Guesting". Here try to explore the metaphor of being a guest in order to develop a missiological approach that may be relevant in a post-Christendom context. It is a follow-up on my article "A Missiology of Listening for a Folk Church in a Post Modern Context" in Emma Wild-Wood & Peniel Rajkumar (eds.), Foundations for Mission. Regnum Edinburgh Centenary Series Volume 13, pp. 190-204 (Oxford: Regnum, 2012).

Please, post you comments here where each new chapter will be published:


 1. Mission as Hospitality - and Guesting? 

Hospitality is a well-known metaphor for mission.[1] In the new WCC mission document it is stated that
"To the extent that the church practises radical hospitality to the estranged in society, it demonstrates commitment to embodying the values of the reign of God (Isaiah 58:6). …. God’s hospitality calls us to move beyond binary notions of culturally dominant groups as hosts, and migrant and minority peoples as guests. Instead, in God’s hospitality, God is host and we are all invited by the Spirit to participate with humility and mutuality in God’s mission."[2]
God is our host and we are his guests. The Danish theologian and hymn writer N. F. S. Grundtvig calls the church a “guest chamber”.[3] God’s hospitality – God being the host – motivates and inspires us to participate in a mission of hospitality where we in the church welcome people and extend God’s hospitality to them. Together with them we are all guests of our Lord, seated at the same table.
The host/hospitality metaphor reveals many important aspects of the mission of God and the misson of the church, but I n this chapter, however, I intend to approach the host-guest relationship from another angle and pursue “guesting” or “being a guest” as a metaphor for mission in the hope that this metaphor may reveal other missionals aspects of mission that might be pertinent to the our postmodern Danish context. God as guest, Jesus as guest, the missionary as guest.
1] See for instance: Julius Gathogo, "African Hospitality form a Missiogical Perspective: Aiding Church and Societal Growth" (2011).

[2] Together towards life: mission and evangelism in changing landscapes. Proposal for a new WCC Affirmation on Mission and Evangelism. Submitted by the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism (CWME) (September 2012). Accessed at .
[3] In the hymn from 1825, revised in 1853, ”Tør nogen ihukomme”.
”Huset med de høje sale
tømres kun af skaberhånd,
må fra Himmelen neddale
som til støvet Herrens Ånd;
vi af bløde bøgestammer,
under nattergalesang,
bygge kun et gæstekammer
til en himmelsk altergang.”

2. God as Host - and Guest?

God is the creator, and we are all his creatures. God the creator is our host and all is creatures are invited to his table as guests. But are we justified in conceiving God also as the guest, as the guest of his own creatures?
When the salvation history takes off through the calling of Abraham, through whom ”all the peoples on earth will be blessed” (Gen 12,3), God appears in the process to Abraham in the persons of three guests. "The Lord appeared to Abraham near the great trees of Mamre while he was sitting at the entrance to his tent in the heat of the day. Abraham looked up and saw three men standing nearby"(Gen 18,1-2).
Abraham welcomed them as any good host would do and treated them as his guests. He had their feet washed and offered them the best food he had. In the context of being a guest of Abraham ”the Lord said, ”I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sara your wife will have a son” (Gen18,10).[1]
When God’s promise about blessing to all people through his descendants was fulfilled and a saviour was born in the family of Mary and Joseph, the encounter of the Son of God with the world was – as a guest in a stable in Bethlehem. Shortly afterwards the holy family realised that king Herod did not welcome them in his kingdom so they had to flee to Egypt and stay there for some time as refugees and guests.
Although Jesus was the Son of God, and could have approached his creation and creatures as their creator and lord, he did not impose himself on people but offered himself as  a guest, someone they could receive and welcome or freely reject him. The evangelist John reflects on this when he writes that "He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognise him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. Yet to all who received him … (John 1,10-12).
Throughout his ministry, Jesus ministered to people from the position of a guest. When somebody came to him and said that he wanted to follow him wherever he would go, Jesus pointed to his way of life: ”Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nest, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head” (Matt 8,20). Apparently, Jesus was always the guest in someone’s house. We know that he often was the guest in the house of the siblings Mary, Martha and Lazarus (Luke 10,38ff), and we hear about him visiting many other houses. He seems to consciously be placing himself in a position of dependence on the hospitality of others.
When Jesus encounters the woman at the well in Samaria, he approaches her as her guest and asks her,  ”Will you give me a drink?” and thereby treating her as if she was him host. As a guest he shows her respect although she is a Samaritan and he belongs to the Jewish people who would normally consider themselves to be superior to the Samaritans. It seems that by making her his host he succeeded in initiating a very open conversation with her about sensitive issues of her personal life and of faith in God.
At the beginning of the history of salvation, the Lord appeared to Abraham as a guest, and at the climax of the history of salvation, the resurrected Lord appeared to two of his discouraged disciples on their way from Jerusalem to Emmaus as a stranger whom they ask to be their guest at a meal. As a guest he does not impose himself on them but listens to them and asks them questions – and then shares his insight with them.  During the meal when Jesus breaks the bread and gives thanks, however, they realise that their guest was the resurrected Lord (Luke 24,13-32).
Jesus met the disciples on the way to Emmaus as a stranger and a guest, but he ended up acting as their host when he broke the bread. This reflects a key event in the ministry of Jesus where he also acted as the host, namely the Lord’s Supper where Jesus is truly the host and his disciples are his guests. As Abraham washed the feet of his three guests in Mamre and gave them a meal, in the same way Jesus washes the feet of his disciples/guests and shares a meal with them (John 13).
The Lord is of course our creator and as creatures we are the guests in his world. The Lord is our Saviour who in his grace invites us to be his guests at his table. But a closer reading of the Old and in particular the New Testament reveals that God as our guest is a very significant theme in the salvation history.

It is noteworthy that the biblical idea of God as our guest has found a strong resonance in The Danish Hymnbook ("Den Danske Salmebog" DS, 2009). In about 30 of the 792 hymns, God (in most hymns the references are to Jesus, but in a few the reference is to the Holy Spirit) is referred to in guest-terminology. The incarnation is described in terms of guesting. Thomas Kingo states that God has broken out of his heavenly abode to become the guest of the world (DS 124,1).  And N. F. S. Grundtvig says that Jesus has come to us as guest for the sake of our salvation (DS 81,4). B.S. Ingemann in his Christmas hymns sings about the joy brought about by the creator visiting his creation.

Joy is our guest on earth this day,
the littel King of  creation!
Come, sparrow and dove, fly down and stay
to join in our celebration.
Dance on your mohter’s lap, dear child!
a wondrous day has arisen:
today He is born, our Saviour mild –
the pathway to Paradise given.[2]

Kingo refers to Jesus being a guest at the wedding of Canaan as a reminder that Jesus also wants to be the guest and bless marriages today (DS 144). Grundtvig calls the Holy Spirit our counsellor or adviser who is the honorouble guest of our heart (DS 305,2).

In Jesus parable about judgment day Jesus identifies himself with the stranger who needs to be welcomed as a guest. Jesus says: “… I was hungry and you gave me something to eat. I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink. I was a stranger and you invited me in” (Matt 25,35f). And in the Book of Revelation Jesus is reported to have said to the Church in Laodicea, and it also may summarise his guest-approach to ministry in general: “Here I am! I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in and eat with him, and he with me” (Rev 3,20).
At the end of his earthly ministry Jesus said to his disciples: “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you” (John 20,21). The sending of Jesus by his father implied a ministry of guesting. The question is, if guesting is also a key component of the ministry and mission of the church?

[1] God appeared as a guest (or rather three guests) when announcing a message of salvation (the promise of son) to Abraham, and God similarly seems to have appeared as a guest (or rather two guests) when announcing judgment (upon the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) to Lot (Gen19,1-21).
[2] Verse 2 of ”Julen har bragt velsignet bud” translated by Edward Broadbridge into English in Hymns in English. A Selection of Hymns from The Danish Hymnbook (2009), p. 28).

3. Sent to Be Guests

In his book ”Transforming Mission” (1992) David Bosch has identified six historical paradigms of mission and in each period ”there was a tendency to take one specific biblical verse as the missionary text” (Bosch 1992:339). E.g, in the patristic understanding (the Eastern Church) it was John 3,16, in the medieval Roman Catholic missionary period it was Luke 14,23 and in the Protestant Reformation focused on Rom 1,16f. Mission in the wake of Enlightenment – i.e., in the modern missionary period – the text that was most often referred to is the so-called ”Great Commission” of Matt 28,18-20.

”All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age”.

This text has no doubt inspired and mobilised many for genuine mission, but interpreted in the light of the dominant thinking in the Enlightenment period and the colonial situation this missionary this text was often understood in a way that confirmed a Western/Christian feeling of superiority. It was tempting to focus on the aspect of authority and obedience and on a one-way communication (”teaching them to obey”).

In the last part of the book ”Toward a Relevant Missiology”, Bosch discusses ”Elements of an Emerging Ecumenical Missionary Paradigm” and here he highlights many aspects that have to be taken into consideration when developing not the postmodern ecumenical missionary paradigm, but – i think – the variety of mission paradigms we need for today.

In a post-Christendom and increasing multi-religious society – such as the Danish society and most other Western societies – the Church is loosing power and Christianity is becoming one among many religious options. The Church is not longer at the centre of society and its attraction is diminishing. Fewer and fewer people respond when the church bells call people to church on Sundays. The context in which we live sometimes blind us to certain texts in the bible and help us to see the relevance of others. Maybe it is the increasing marginalisation of church and Christianity that has helped some to see the exemplary relevance of stories in Old as well as New Testament about God who approaches our world as a guest – and to see texts such as Luke 9,1-9 (parr. Matt 10,5-15, Mark 67-13) and 10,1-16 as challenging missionary texts for today.

As it was shown in the previous chapter, in his sending by his father to the world he saw himself as a guest of those to whom he was sent to minister. Thereby he set an example for his disciples who had followed him and participated in his “guesting”. When Jesus sent out the 12 and the 72 they were sent with his authority to preach the kingdom and to heal the sick. What is often overlooked, however, is the way he sends them. They are not sent out as a well-equipped army, but they are sent out empty handed. “Take nothing for the journey – no staff, no bag, no bread, no money, no extra tunic” (Luke 9,2). The explanation is that they are sent as – guests, which means that they would be depending not on their own resources but on their hosts to whom they were sent to minister. And they were supposed to behave like good guests: When they entered a house they should convey “Peace to this house“. And they should “Stay in that house, eating and drinking whatever they give you, for the worker deserves his wages”. The disciples of Jesus were to carry out their missionary ministry of preaching the kingdom of god and of healing the sick as the guests of those they were ministering to.

There are examples of a continuation of the ministry of guesting among the disciples after the ascension of Jesus. In Acts of the Apostles we read about Peter who is the guest of Simon the tanner in Joppa, when  (Acts 9:43 & 10:6), when the Roman centurion Cornelius invites him to stay in his house in Caesarea. The surprising aspect of Peter’s accept of the hospitality of Cornelius is that he is Roman soldier, who is not a Jew. What convinced Peter to do so was the vision God gave him while he was still a guest in the house of Simon the tanner, a vision that helped him re realize that he “should not call any man unclean or impure” (Acts 10,28). His acceptance of the hospitality of this gentile bridges the gap between Jews and gentiles and becomes the vehicle for the evangelisation of gentiles: as the guest in Cornelius’ house he shares the gospel with Cornelius and the others in the house and the Holy Spirit falls upon them and they are baptised.[1]

In many missiological books and articles the missiological significance of hospitality has been explored and analysed. What is needed, however, is to reflect more deeply about the missiological significance of guesting.

[1] Andrew Arterbury, ”Entertaining Angels: Hospitality in Luke and Acts” (Center for Christian Ethics at Baylor University, 2007)


Catecumenate - Introduction into the Christian Faith


Catecumenate comes from Greek, "katechein" , and means guiding and training or educating. The Catecumenate may be described as a journey of faith, where poeple are are offered education and information and training in preparation for baptism, confirmation or renewal of baptism wows.


1. General

Online litterature

Senn, Frank C., "A Catechism on the Catechumenate" (1998)

A lutheran (ELCA) text explaining the Lutheran catechumenate. Download .

Duckworth, Jessicah L. K., "Conversion and Catechesis in the Community of Faith: Examining the Catechumenate in Eight ELCA Congregations"
A Lutheran paper on catechesis.

General Directory for Catechesis (1997)
Katolsk vejlending om katekese. Download .

Senn, Frank C., "A Catechism for the Catechumenate". Lutheran Forum, 1998).
An interview with the pastor of Immanuel Lutheran Church (ELCA) in Evanston about adult catechumenate. Download.

Ward, Karen M., "Making Adult Disciples: Rite for Our Times" (Christian Century, March 24, 1999)
K. M. Ward, who is " associate director of worship for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, headquartered in Chicago" explores how mainline churches these years are reviving the ancient cathecumenate traditions of initating adults into the Christian faith and the Church. Download.

"Selected Catechumenate Resources from the North American Association for the Catechumenate ( from the Allegheny Synod Bishop’s Convocation" (2004)
En meget omfattende litteraturliste om katekumenat. Download.

"To be a Christian in Finland. A guidebook to Confirmation for Immigrants and Finnish Expatriates" (2006)
Udgivet af den finske lutherske kirke. Download.

Wikipedia, "Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults"
The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (often abbreviated RCIA) is the process through which interested adults are gradually introduced to the Roman Catholic faith and way of life. Download.



CIBEDO ist die Fachstelle der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz mit der Aufgabe, den interreligiösen Dialog zwischen Christentum und Islam, sowie das Zusammenleben von Christen und Muslimen zu fördern. CIBEDO ist die Abkürzung für "Christlich-islamische Begegnung - und Dokumentationsstelle" in Frankfurt am Main.Besøg hjemmesiden

The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults Resource Site
Listed on this site are a series of documents on topics that are covered during the course of an RCIA process. Visit the website.


2. For people with Muslim Background

Online litterature

CIBEDO: "Muslime in Deutschland: Teil II: Einzelfragen. Konversion/Taufe"

Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirkche Hannovers, "Zweisprachige Unterlage für den Taufenunterricht"

Katholische Glaubensinformation, Islam und Christentum: Eine Gesprächshilfe

Katholische Glaubensinformation, Hinfürhrung zur Glaube

Sinclair, Michael, "Nine Bible Studies for Muslim Seekers. Preparing the Ground and Proclaiming the Gospel"
"The 49 page word document includes a short description of the study and an outline of points to bring up in each passage specifically for Muslims.  Also at the end of each study is the Qur'anic account of each story or passage".  Download.

Troll,  Christian W., Muslims Ask, Christians Answer
This homepage offers you the opportunity to read online the book „ Muslims ask, Christians answer". In addition the homepage shall list further questions from readers concerning the book and about Christianity and Christian-Muslim Relations in general, together with answers to these. Download.

Online Litterature on Intercultural Issues


Links on Intercultural Issues

Under construction.


Under construction.


Online Litterature on Multiculturalism

Online litterature on multiculturalism in English


Bourne, Jeremy, "In Defense of Multiculturalism"

Ellis, Frank, "Multiculturalism and Marxism" (American Renaissance, November 1999)
Ellis is a very controversial lecturer in Russian and Slavonic Studes at Leeds University, who was suspended for alleged racism". He introduces this article with the following statement: "No successful society shows a spontaneous tendency towards multiculturalism or multiracialism. Successful and enduring societies show a high degree of homogeneity. Those who support multiculturalism either do not know this or, what is more likely, realize that if they are to transform Western societies into strictly regulated, racial-feminist bureaucracies they must first undermine those societies." Download.

Guillam, Peter, "This multiculturalism debate is not about culture" (The Guardian, April 26, 2011)
"As it stands, the multiculturalism debate is a proxy for everything other than culture: race, inequality, markets, globalisation, terrorism – perhaps modernity itself. But certainly not culture – because all cultures are multicultures, and cannot be anything else." Download.

Inglis, Christine, "Multiculturalism: New Policy Responses to Diversity" (UNESCO)

John, Cindi, "So what exactly is multiculturalism?" (BBC News, April 5, 2004)
Different understandings of and attitudes to multiculturalism. Download.

Tariq Modood, Tariq, "Remaking multiculturalism after 7/7"  (29 September 2005)
"Britain’s multicultural model is held responsible for the London bombs of July 2005. But a deeper understanding suggests a concept that can be extended to a “politics of equal respect” that includes Britain’s Muslims in a new, shared sense of national belonging, says Tariq Modood." Download.

Song, Sarah, "Multiculturalism" (The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2010)
Contains a very useful overview of the concept. Download.

Volokh, Eugene, "Fuzzy Thinking on Multiculturalism" (CBS News March 31, 2011)

Younge, Gary, "On the West's Moral Panic Over 'Multiculturalism" (The Nation, July 7, 2011)
This article is adapted from the preface to The Crises of Multiculturalism: Racism in a Neoliberal Age, by Alana Lentin and Gavan Titley, published by Zed Books on July 14, 2011. Download.



Under construction

Online Articles on Intercultural Issues



Allan Barnard & Jonathan Spencer (eds.) Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. London & New York: Routledge. 1996

European Commission, Intercultural Dialogue in Europe (2008)
A survey of attitudes in European countries. Download.

Gert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions
National cultures can be described according to the analysis of Geert Hofstede. Hofstede's analysis includes five independent deminsions of national culture  difference:  Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Download.

Paul G. Hiebert, "Form and Meaning in the Conxtexualization of the Gospel".
In Dean S. Gilliland, ed., The Word Among Us: Contextualising Theology for Mission Today. Dallas: Word. 1989. Pp. 101-120. Download .

Intercultural Communication

International Etiquette Guide
Understanding other people's languages, cultures, etiquettes and taboos is of great value to the traveller or visiting business person. Scroll down the page for information on a selected number of countries. Topics include language, useful phrases, the society, culture, business and social etiquettes.Download.

Zizek, Slavoj, "Problemet er ikke indvandrere, det er vores egeneuropæiske identitet" (Information 3/8/11)
Den slovenske filosof skriver i forbindelse med Anders Breiviks terrorangreb i Norge, at, hans manifest er ikke en enlig galnings rablerier, men et symptom på de indre modsætninger i tidens fremstormende indvandrerfjendske højrepopulisme. Download.


Wikipedia, Intercultural Competence


Intercultural Issues

Under construction.

 On-line Litterature on Integration - in English


Algan, Yann  et. al., "Perspectives on Cultural Integration of Immigrants: An Introduction"

Brubaker, Rogers, "The return of assimilation? Changing perspectives on immigration and its sequels in France, Germany, and the United States" Download.

Cadge, Wendy and Elaine Howard Ecklund
2007   “Immigration and Religion” i Annual Review of Sociology 2007, 33: 359-379. Download.

Martikainen, Tuomas
2005      ”Religion, Immigrants and Integration” i AMID Working Paper Series 2005, 43: 1-14. Download.

Parkes, Roderic, "Immigrant Integration Meetis European Integration" (2008)

Rockwool Foundation, Publications on immigration and integration
List of research publications from RF.Download.

The Role of Religion for Migration and Integration
Powerpoint. Download.

Wikipedia, "Cultural Assimilation"

Yang, Fenggang and Helen Rose Ebaugh
2001    “Religion and Ethnicity Among New Immigrants: The Impact of Majority/Minority Status in Home and Host Countries” i Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2001, 40 (3): 367-378. Download


Islam and Christian-Muslim relations in Denmark


Interfaith Documents

Lutheran Church Statement (at the time of the Cartoon Crisis) (2006)
Statement issued by the board of The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and teh Encounter with Other Religions as a response to the Cartoon Crisis, on the 6th of February 2006. Download.

Danish Church Delegation on Peace Mission to Egypt (2006)
Press release from the Foreign ministry on official delegation with two bishops sent to Cairo to carry out religious dialogue as a follow up to the Cartoon Crisis. Download .

"Mission and dialogue" (2006)
Document adopted by the board of "The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and the Encounter with Other Religions" (Stiftssamarbejdet "Folkekirke og Religionsmøde". Download .

"Theses on the Recognition of People of Different Religions in a Multi-religious Society" (2007)
Adopted by the Danish Mission Council on April 18, 2007. Read more.

Danish National Council of Churches - Response to "A Common Word" (2007)

"Report on Freedom of Expression - Christian-Muslim Working Group" (2008).
Presented and accepted by the third Leadership Conference for Christian and Muslim Leaders October 2008. Read more.

"Letter to 138 Muslims from a group of pastors in Haderslev Diocese, Denmark" (2009)
A response to "A Common Word" from a working group of five pastors in the diocese of Haderslev. Download .




Bonde, Bent Nørby, "How 12 Cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed were Brought to Trigger an International Conflict" (2007)
The article analyses why the religious protests in Denmark generated the astonishing international reactions and concludes that a very hostile rhetoric against Muslims in Denmark and montaining international tensions were important pre-disposing causes for the conflict. The articles also points to several options to de-escalate the coflict which were not used by the government. Finally, it suggests lessons to be learned in similar cross-cultural crises in Europe. Download.

Helqvist, Iben and Elizabeth Sebian, "Islam in Denmark"
Article from the website Euro-Islam Info with a lot of factual information about Muslims in Denmark. Download.

Jensen, Tim, "Islam and Muslims in Denmark. An Introduction".
'Ilu, Revista de ciencias de las religiones ejo XXI, 107-138, 2007. Download.

LWF, Diapraxis for Peace and Reconciliation
The Lutheran World Federation has issued an interesting material on "Diapraxis for Peace and Reconciliation", with perspectives from all continents on the rlations between Christianity, Islam and other religions.  Contains an article on Islam in Denmark by Dr. Lissi Rasmussen. Read more.

Mogensen, Mogens S.  "Conversion between Islam and Christianity in a Danish Context" (2003).
Article in Theology and the Religions, Viggo Mortensen, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Pp. 287-317.Download.

Mogensen, Mogens S. "Tolerance and the New Pluralism. Towards a Post-secular Society with Religions in the Public
Square."  (2006)

Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april 2006. Download.

Mogensen, Mogens S. ,"The Role of Media in Portraying Events. Legal, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on Media
and Communication" (2006)

Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. April 2006. Download.

Mogensen, Mogens S., From Cartoon Crisis to Headscarf Row. Two Conflicts Changing Multireligious Denmark. Christiansfeld: (2008)
Book available for sale here. Download foreword and introduction. Download ch. 1 (contains a description and analysis of the Danish Cartoon crisis).

Rasmussen, Lissi, "Us vs Them syndrome in Christian-Muslim conflicts. Denmark, Indonesia and Nigeria" (2007)Paper for the conference Religion in the 21st century, Copenhagen, September 2007. Dr. Rasmussen concludes on a LWF study about Christian-Muslim relationbs in  in which she was involved in Denmark, Indonesia and Nigeria, concerning the us vs. them syndrome. Download.

Wikipedia, "Islam in Denmark"


Information about Christianity and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark

The Council on International Relations of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark - Website
This website in English contains a lot of information about the Danish Lutheran chiurch. Download.




The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and the Encounter with Other Religions
2006 Statement issued as a response to the Cartoon Crisis, on the 6th of February 2006. Download .

Christian-Muslim Working Group
2008   "Report on Freedom of Expression - Christian-Muslim Working Group" - October 2008. Presented and accepted by the third Leadership Conference for Christian and Muslim Leaders. in a Multi-religious Society". Adopted by the Danish Mission Council on April 18, 2007. Read more.

2014 Muslim and Christian Religious Leaders Unite to Denounce ISIS and Violence in Iraq and Syria

“In an unprecedented demonstration of multi-religious solidarity, leaders of Christian, Muslim and other religious communities from Iraq, Syria and the larger Middle East region today have denounced with one voice all violence in the name of religion, and have called on the international community to protect religious and cultural diversity in Iraq and Syria. Religious leaders from Sunni, Shiite, Christian, Mandean, and Yazidi communities across the Middle East today jointly issued the Vienna Declaration, “United against Violence in the Name of Religion”, at the international conference organized by the KAICIID Dialogue Centre. This is the first time religious leaders representing so many different religions from a crisis region have come together as one to denounce oppression, marginalization, persecution and killing of people in the name of religion.” Download.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and teh Encounter with Other Religions
2006   "Mission and dialogue". Document adopted by the board of The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and teh Encounter with Other Religions. Download .

von Sicard, Sigvard & Ingo Wulfhorst
2003   Dialogue and Beyond. Christians and Muslims Together on the Way. LWF Studies. Download.

Publications in English by Mogens S. Mogensen

Books, articles, feature articles, reports, reviews, conference papers etc. written by Mogens S. Mogensen.

2008   From Cartoon Crisis to Headscarf Row. Two Conflicts Changing Multireligious Denmark. Christiansfeld: Read more.

2008   "Migration and Conversion - The Conversion of Immigrants in a Danish Context". In Thormod 
Engelsviken et. al. (eds.), Mission to the World. Communicating the Gospel in the 21st Century.
Essays in Honour of Knud Jørgensen
. Oxford: Regnum, pp. 67-84. Download.

2008    "The Role of Media in Portraying Events: Legal, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on Media
and Communication". In Nirmala Rao Khadpekar (ed.), Media Ethics. Global Dimensions.
Hyderabad, India: The Icfai University Press, pp. 100-108.

2008    From Cartoon Crisis to Headscarf Row. Two Conflicts Changing Multireligious Denmark.
Christiansfeld: Download foreword and introduction. Download ch. 1.

2007  "The Danish Cartoon Crisis". I Lissi Rasmussen, red., Bridges instead of Walls.
Christian-Muslim Interaction in Denmark, Indonesia and Nigeria
. S. 27-46.

2007  "The Litterature of Islam. A Guide to the Primary Sources in English Translation" by 
Paula Youngman Skreslet & Rececca Skreslet. A Review. International Bulletin of
Missionary Research
. Download.

2006  "Tolerance and the New Pluralism. Towards a Post-secular Society with Religions in the Public
Square." Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual
Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april. Download.

2006  "The Role of Media in Portraying Events. Legal, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on Media
and Communication." Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for
Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april. Download.

2003  "News and Debates in the Media Related to Islam and Ethnic Minorities". 
With AminaTønnsen.  IKS debat.

2003 "Conversion between Islam and Christianity in a Danish Context" . Theology and the      
, Viggo Mortensen, red. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Pp. 287-317.Download.

2002 Fulbe Muslims Encounter Christ. Contextual Communication of the
Gospel to Pastoral Fulbe in Northern Nigeria
. Jos, Nigeria: Intercultural
Consultancy Services.

2000  Evaluation Report: Evangelism and Church Building in Mission Évangelique Luthérienne au Mali.  With Daniel Dama and Jan Opsal. Download.

2000 Contextual Communicatioin of the Gospel to Pastoral Fulbe in
Northern Nigeria.
PhD dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary. Download s. 1-150. Download s. 151-300. Download s. 301-348.

2000   "Continuity and Discontinuity between Islam and Christianity in Mission to Muslims" 
Paper presented at an international meeting in Copenhagen. Download.

1999   "If stones could talk"
Paper, presented at course at Caspari Center in Jerusalem. Download.


1989 "Islamic Revivalist Movements and Conflicts between Muslims and
Christians in Nigeria 1979 - 1989." Research paper, School of World
Mission, Fuller Theological  Seminary.

1989 "History of Mission to Fulbe in Nigeria" Research paper, School of World
Mission,  Fuller Theological Seminary.

1989 "Hear Israel, the Lord Your God is One". The Attitude of the People of
God to Polytheism an Monotheism. Research Paper, School of World
Mission, Fuller Theological Seminary.

1989 "Mission Approach to Fulbe in Northern Nigeria." Research paper, 
School of World Mission, Fuller Theological Seminary.

Videos on Conversion

This pages contains videos with converts telling their conversion story and videos about conversion issues.


"Religious conversion in war is rare today"



"A Muslim's Conversion to Christianity".


"Converting Conversion to Judaism JewU 42 Rabbi Jonathan Ginsburg".



"My conversion story to Islam,from being atheist to muslim".

On-line litterature on religious freedom and religious persecution - in English


Aid to the Church in Need, Persecuted and Forgotten? A Report on Christians oppressed for their Faith 2011 Edition
Reports from more than 30 countries where Christians are being persecuted. Download.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Righst and Labor (US), International Religious Freedom Report for 2011

Christian Persecution Magazine
"A Christian website of the Worthy Network". A collection of news from around the world Read more.

Council of Euroepean Union, EU Guidelines on the Promotion and Protection of Freedom of Religion or Belief (June 24, 2013)

European Parliament Working Group on Freedom of Religion or Belief, 2013 Annual Report. Conclusions and Recommendations the Situation of Freedom of Religion or Belief in the World (February 2014)

Finnish Ecumenical Council, Religious Freedom and Foreign Policy. Recommendations for Finland. (Finnnish Ecumenical Council publications XCIX 2013)

Freedom of Religion and Belief in the 21st Century project
The Australian Human Rights Commission has  set up this project in order to work with faith communities and other civil society organisations to record their concerns and proposed solutions to build a more socially cohesive and harmonious society that protects and promotes Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Read more. See also discussion paper here.

Kiviorg,Merilin, The Legal Challenge to Ensuring Freedom of Religion and Belief in Europe. PPP
Summer School of Human Rights . "Theology and Human Rights - Freedom of Religion or Belief for All" 15 - 18 September 2014, Palermo - Italy. Download.

Minority Rights Group International, "The State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2010"
This year the report focuses on religious minorities and the persecution of religious minorities in various countries in the world. Download rapport.

PEW, "Rising Restrictions on Religion" (2011)
More than 2.2 billion people – nearly a third (32%) of the world’s total population of 6.9 billion – live in countries where either government restrictions on religion or social hostilities involving religion rose substantially over the period of 2006-2009. Only about 1% of the world’s population lives in countries where government restrictions or social hostilities declined. According to a newly released report by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion and Public Life we are witnessing "Rising Restrictions on Religion". Download.

PEW, "Rising Tide of Restrictions on Religion" (2012)
"Between mid-2009 and mid-2010, religious restrictions rose not only in countries that began the year with high or very high restrictions, such as Indonesia and Nigeria, but also in many countries that began with low or moderate restrictions, such as Switzerland and the United States. The report looks at restrictions due to government actions as well as acts of violence and intimidation by private individuals, organizations and social groups."   Download.

PEW, Religious Hostilities Reach Six-Year High (2014)
Violence and discrimination against religious groups by governments and rival faiths have reached new highs in all regions of the world except the Americas, according to a new Pew Research Centre report. "Looking at the overall level of restrictions – whether resulting from government policies or from social hostilities – the study finds that restrictions on religion are high or very high in 43% of countries, also a six-year high. Because some of these countries (like China) are very populous, more than 5.3 billion people (76% of the world’s population) live in countries with a high or very high level of restrictions on religion, up from 74% in 2011 and 68% as of mid-2007."  Download.

Rapporteur's Digest on Freedom of Religion or Belief (2011)
Excerpts of the Reports from 1986 to 2011 by the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief Arranged by Topics of the Framework for Communications.


The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE9, Religious Liberty: The Legal Framework in Selected OSCE countries (2010)
CSCE is an independent U.S. Government agency mandated by Congress to monitor compliance with the commitments made by the participating
States of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). These commitments include protection of the freedom of religion. The report contains information about Austria, France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, USA and Uzbekistan. One of the articles deals with "Religious minorities in a post-9/11 world" and includes a section by Naxila Ghanea on "Religious minorities and the cartoon controversy". Read more.

United States Commission Report on International Religious Freedom, Annual Report 2010

UN, Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion and belief on his mission to Denmark (2016)

University of Minnesota, Study Guide - Freedom of Religion or Belief
Brief introductions and a very  comprehensive list of relevant litterature and links. Download.

Ventura, Marco, Freedom of Religion and Belief: the Legal Challenge (PPP)
Summer School of Human Rights . "Theology and Human Rights - Freedom of Religion or Belief for All" 15 - 18 September 2014, Palermo - Italy. Download.


From Cartoon Crisis to Head Scarf Row


Author: Mogens S. Mogensen
Title:    From Cartoon Crisis to 
Headscarf Row.
Two Conflicts Changing  
Multi-religious Denmark
Place of publication:  
Christiansfeld, DK
Pages: 93
Price:   Euro 18,50 / DKK 150
Bookseller: or
Exerpt: Download .

Why was it that Denmark became the centre of the cartoon crisis of 2005 which in 2006 developed into an international crisis between Muslim countries and the West? Why was it that – in a liberal country such as Denmark which was among the first countries to accept women to be seen topless – we, in 2007, experienced headscarf row about to how great an extent Muslim women should be allowed to cover themselves?



“From Cartoon Crisis to Headscarf Row” seeks to describe and analyse these two conflicts and the responses to them from various political and religious groups and to reflect on the significance of these events which attracted worldwide attention.

The book contains the following chapters:
  • Introduction
  • The Cartoon Crisis
  • Dialogue in the Middle East
  • Dialogue in Denmark
  • Recognition, Dialogue and Mission
  • The Headscarf Row
  • Conclusion
These days we experience a continuation of the cartoon crisis as the Danish intelligence service claims that it has uncovered plans by Islamist extremists in Denmark to kill one of the cartoonists. A number of Danish newspapers in solidarity with the cartoonist have responded by reprinting his cartoon of Muhammad, while Muslim groups in different parts of the world begin to demonstrate.
This recent development highlights the significance of the topic of this book

In order to read foreword and introduction, click here
In order to read one of the main chapters, "The Cartoon Crisis", click here.
The author of “From Cartoon Crisis to Headscarf Row”, Mogens S. Mogensen, has a PhD in intercultural studies, is an acknowledged consultant in interreligious and intercultural issues and teaches as a part time lecturer at the University of Copenhagen. He has worked for 10 years in Northern Nigeria and is involved in dialogues between Muslims and Christians in Denmark and internationally (See CV  here). He has written a number of books and articles on Christian-Muslim issues, mission and dialogue, conversion (See list of publications here).
The author offers to give lectures and presentations in English or in Danish about the multi-religious situation in Denmark in which the cartoon crisis and the headscarf row took place: "From mono- to multi-society. Denmark after the Cartoon Crisis".
The book is published by and is awailable from
The price is Euro 18,50 excl. postage.
In order to buy the book from, click here.  
The book can also be bought for DKK 150 incl. VAT and excl. postage from:
N. J. Holms Park 55
DK-6070 Christiansfeld
Tele: +45 7456 2282
Cell:  +45 2617 5712
E-mail: Denne e-mail adresse bliver beskyttet mod spambots. Du skal have JavaScript aktiveret for at vise den.

Links on Fulanis and Fulanimission

Fulfulde "Good News" papers
"Booyataa" og "Badake" are outreach papers produced by Soon in Adamawa Fulfulde and the Pulaar dialects spoken by Fulas in Senegal and surrounding countries.They are offered free and can also be downloaded.
This website is for Fulanis interested in Christianity and for non-Fulanis interested in missiona among Fulanis.

Sawtu Linjiila radio studio, Ngaoundere, Cameroun
Sawtu Linjiila is a Christian radiostudio which since 1966 has produced and broadcast in shortwave and now also in FM programs on development, news, cultural issues together with programs on the gospel. This website opened in November 2002l

Fulani people description
Contains a short description of the Fulani people in West Africa.

Institute for Nomadic Studies
On the US Center for World Mission in California, Dr. Malcom Hunter has establsiehd a center for mission studies on nomadic societies around the world. Since many Fulanis are still nomads, this website will also be relevant for those who take interest in Fulanis.

The Fulbe of Guinea
Short description of Fulanis in Guinea and the mission work carried out among them by the af Christian Missionary Alliance.

The Sokoto Fulani of Nigeria
Short description of the Sokoto Fulanis in Nigeria and the mission work among them. Presented by Unreached Peoples Prayer Profiles. From hee there are links to informations about a number of other Fulani groups in West Africa.

Fulani Ministries International
Fulani Ministries International is an interdenominational mission organisation founded in 1997, originally focusing on Fulanis in Burkina Faso, but now with Fulanis all over West Afica as their goal. The chairman is Bureima Diallo.

What is a Fulani
This website provide a short introduction to the Fulani people and to missiona among Fulani.

Ethnoloque on Fulani language
Ethnologue presents the language family to which Fulfulde belongs and the dialects of the Fulfulde language.


Literature on Fulanis and Fulani Mission

Articles and books by Mogens S. Mogensen

Full text of PhD dissertation on Fulani mission - 23/02/05
The the entire text of the PhD dissertation "Contextual Communication of the Gospel to the Pastoral Fulbe in Northern Nigeria" (Fuller Theological Seminary 2000) by Mogens S. Mogensen is now available here in pdf-format. Download s. 1-150. Download s. 151-300. Download s. 301-348.

Evangelism and Church Building in Mission Evangélique Luthérienne au Mali
An evaluation carried out in 2000 by Rev. Daniel Dama, Dr. Mogens S. Mogensen & Rev. Jan Opsal of the Fulani evangelism work done by Norwegian and Danish mission organisations in Mali. Download.

JCMWA at 20
Joint Christian Ministry in West Africa (JCMWA) is a networking organisation for churches and mission agencies involved in miniostry among Fulanis all over West And Central Africa. This paper, which was presented at the 20th anniversy of JCMWA at the Assembly in Jos, Nigeria, presents the history and significance of this co-operation. Download

LCCN Fulani Work.
In Asriel S. T. Myatafadi and Others (eds.), A Century of God’s Faithfulness, 1913-2013 Reflections on the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (2013). Download


Fulaner i Vestafrika. Fulanifolkets oprindelse og udbredelse
Artiklen giver en generel indføreing i fulanifolkets historie de sidste 1000 år, en præsentation af deres oprindelige nomadelivsform og deres møde med det moderne samfund.

På baggrund af en generel indføring i fulanifolkets historie, kultur og religion redegøres der for, hvordan den kristne mission blandt fulanerne foregår i dag.

Der er mere mellem himmel og jord
Med afsæt i fulanernes religion og tilværelsesforståelse gøres der i artiklen rede for, hvordan vi kan analysere religiøse systemer, inkl. vort eget danske.Download.

Artiklen, der indeholder uddrag på dansk af min doktorafhandling "Contextual Communication of the Gospel to Pastoral Fulbe in Northern Nigeria", redegør for, hvilke faktorer der har påvirket nogle fulaners livshistorie, deres omvendelse fra islam til kristendom. Download


Articles by other authors

Ismail Iro, From Nomadism to Sedentarism: An Analysis of Development Contraints and Public Policy Issues in the Socioeconomic Tranformation of the Pastoral Fulani of Nigeria
This is a report on a research program covering a number of interesting topics, incl.
Should Pastoral Fulani Sedentarize? Characteristics of the Fulani. Fulani Herding System. Traditionalism Vs. Modernism: A Look at Fulani Methods of Livestock Disease Management. Scarcity of Water as an Impediment to Pastoral Fulani Development. Nomadic Education and Education for Nomadic Fulani. Grazing Reserve Development: A Panacea to the Intractable Strife Between Farmers and Herders. Where Modernism has Failed and Traditionalism has Thrived: A Look at Commercial Ranching and Fulani Herding. Livestock Transportation and Marketing in Nigeria- The Fulani Milk Maid and Problems of Dairying in Nigeria. And: Diffusion of Innovation: The Fulani Response to Livestock Improvement. To read the report, click here.

Bibliography on Fulanis
This very comprehensive bibliography is extremely useful for the study of various aspects of Fulbe culture and history. To access the bibliography, click here.

The Fulbe of West Africa
At the end of the text, there is a very comprehensive bibliography. To read the text, click here.

The Cartoon Crisis

Articles and papers by Mogens S. Mogensen on the Cartoon Crisis:

"From Cartoon Crisis to Headscarf Row. Two Conflicts Changing Multireligious Denmark" (2008)
Book published Feruary 2008., Christiansfeld:

Tolerance and the New Pluralism. Towards a Post-secular Society with Religions in the Public  Square.

Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april 2006. Download.

The Role of Media in Portraying Events. Legal, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on Media and Communication.
Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april. Download.

"The Danish Cartoon Crisis". I Lissi Rasmussen, red., Bridges instead of Walls. 
Christian-Muslim Interaction in Denmark, Indonesia and Nigeria. 2007 S. 27-46.


Other informations:

Hansen, John & Kim Hundevadt, "The Cartoon Crisis - how It Unfulded" (2008)
A 7-pages long summary of the cartoon crisis presented by two of the reporters fromJyllands-Posten, published in Jyllands-Posten 11/03/08. Download.

The Cartoons in Jyllands-Posten
See the actual cartoons that started the whole crisis. Click here.

Wikipedia on the Cartoon Crisis
The Wikipedia encyclopedia has collected a lot of material on the cartoon crisis. Click here.

Press Release for Danish Lutheran Church: Freedom of Speech and Respect
"... freedom of speech does not exclude showing respect for the individual person’s religious faith. On the contrary the respect for the individual person is the presupposition for having freedom of speech in Denmark. With freedom of speech follows respect for others. At the same time as we have developed democratic rights of freedom, a process of secularisation has taken place and the familiarity with and the knowledge of Christianity has been weakened. In the public debate an understanding of what is sacred and what can offend the individual person of which faith he or she may be is often missing. To provoke or offend another person’s faith for the sake of provocation alone does not serve any purpose". Read more.

Abu Dhabi Dialogue Conference - "The Search for Mutual Understanding"
A group of young Danes and Muslims from the Middle East and other parts of the world met for a dialogue conference in the wake of the cartoon crisis in Abu Dhabi around Easter 2006. At the end of the conference a declaration was agreed upon. Read More.

"The Ground-breaking Cross-cultural Muslim-Danish Forum". Report from AME Info.
"Renowned Muslim scholar, Habib Ali Aljifri, Director of the Tabah Foundation, summed up the positive results of the Dialogue: 'By the grace of God, I believe that the forum achieved its primary objective, namely the building of bridges of understanding, as well as the ability to appreciate the feelings and sensitivities of the delegations." Read more.

'Publication of blasphemous cartoons has nothing to do with freedom of expression'
Article by Nada S. Mussallam in Khaleej Times Online ""The whole matter has nothing to do with freedom of expression. The decision to publish the cartoons has to be seen in the context of that country's struggle to come to terms with a modern reality, that of creating a robust society," said Fuad Nahdi, publisher of the London-based Q-News magazine." Read more.

"Landmark dialogue between Young Danes and Muslims begins"
Article in United Press International. ""This is an opportunity for genuine cultural, intellectual and spiritual exchange," said Tabah Foundation's Amienoella Abderoef."We are not here to gloss over the difficult issues. We want these young leaders and activists to deal with the most difficult and complex issues but in the spirit of mutual respect. We need to develop the values we share and work to resolving differences peacefully." Read more.

Evaluations and Analyses


Evaluations and evaluations on interreligious, intercultural and other projects and programs are carried out in Denmark and abroad.


Previous jobs

"The 2006 Assessment and Structural Review of Danmission’s Involvement in Bangladesh through Bangladesh Lutheran Church and Bangladesh Lutheran Mission – Danish,January 30 – February 10, 2006"

Evaluation of "I Mesterens Lys" (a program for dialogue with new religious groups in Denmark) for Areopagos, 2004


Evaluation of "Mødestedet. Kirkens Indvandrerarbejde på Vesterbro" (The Meeting Point. Work among Immigrations on Vesterbro, Copenhagen) (maj 2004). Diakoni, integration og religionsmøde på Vesterbro. 2004

Analys of elements of the work of the programs of "Kristelig Fagbevægelse" (Christian Workers Union) 2003.

Analysi of the work of Danmission in Tanzania, Cambodia and Pakistan. 2002 Danmission in Africa and Asia. 2002. Dowload.

Evaluation of mission work of MELM in Mali - conducted with Jan Opsal, Norway, and Daniel Dama, Benin. 2001. Evangelisation and Churchbuilding in MELM. 2000. Download

abu-dhabi-women.gif is an iinternet ressource for intercultural and interreligious relations and studies by Mogens S. Mogensen.

Help us create a charter for compassion
Jan. 4: By recognizing that the Golden Rule is fundamental to all world religions, the Charter for Compassion can inspire people to think differently about religion. This Charter is being created in a collaborative project by people from all over the world. It will be completed in 2009. Use this site to offer language you'd like to see included. Or inspire others by sharing your own story of compassion. Read more.

Porvo-consultation on Christian Muslim relations
Dec. 6.: Christian and Muslim representatives from the countries whose Lutheran and Anglican churches are membes of the Porvoo community are gathering in Edinburgh to share experiences on Christian-Muslim relations. Read more.

Religion in the Public Sphere
May 14-16 an international conference was held at the Faculty of Theology at the University of Aarhus. The topic was "Religion in the Public Sphere" and among the main speakers were the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas (see photo to the right) and the British sociologist of religion Grace Davie. To read more about the conference and the lectures, click here.

cartoon_crisis_headscarf_ro.gifNew Book on the Cartoon Crisis
Mogens S. Mogensen has published a new book on the Cartoon Crisis. The book is releases exactly at a time when it seems as if we are witnessing a continuation of the cartoon crisis from 2006. The book analyses both the cartoon crisis and the headscarf row in 2007, in which a Muslim lady wearing headscarf ran for Parliament. Read more.

A Common Word
138 Muslim leaders from all over the world have written an open letter to the pope and the leaders of all churches with an appeal for dialogue and peace:A Common Word.

Officiel website for brevet.
Responses & comments:
ELCA/LWF president
Anglicansk archbishop
New York Times

Danish Response to "A Common Word"
A number of Danish churches have praised an open letter published by 138 prominent Muslim scholars and have pledged to meet with leaders of Islam in Denmark to continue this exchange. "The letter is a comprehensive, brave, and learned document that incorporates an opening in relation to Christianity that is unique in the history of the world," said the response. Read more. To read letter, click here.

Links to International Dialogue Fora


Christian Muslim Forum - England
In 2006 a Christian-Muslim dialogue forum was established in England. The main task for this forum is  "to explore ways in which Christians and Muslims can contribute together for the greater good of our whole community." Read more.

Interreligious Dialogue. The website of the Journal of Inter-Religious Dialogue.
The Journal of Inter-Religious Dialogue is a forum for academic, social, and timely issues affecting religious communities around the world. It is designed to increase the quality and frequency of interchanges between religious groups and their leaders. The Journal seeks to build an inter-religious community of scholars, in which people of different traditions learn from one another and work together for the common good. Visit . 

Nämnden för statligt stöd till trossamfund (SST)

Religions for Peace. European Council for Religious Leaders
"The European Council of Religious Leaders is one of five regional Interreligious Councils  (IRCs) within the Religions for Peace network. The European Council of Religious Leaders brings together senior religious leaders from Europe’s historical religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam together with Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs and Zoroastrians. The Council was founded in Oslo in 2002. The Council is funded by its members and has received project support from The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Religions for Peace is a network of national and regional Interreligious Councils (IRC) connected through an international World Council and Secretariat, based in New York. The global organisation brings together 70 national and 5 regional IRCs. Through these IRCs Mosques, Synagogues, Churches, Temples and Gudwaras form a network that enables them to mobilise and use their shared potential as religious communities for Reconciliation and Peace." Read more.

Samarbeidsrådet for tros- og livssynssamfunn (STL) Norway

Here is a large amount of information about interreligious dialogue. Read more.

Links to Christian-Muslim and Interreligious Dialogue, internationally
A wide collection of links to dialogue fora and initiatives divided into sections according to geography, and divided between Christian-Muslim dialogue and interfaith dialogue. Read more.

Islamist terrorism


"At no point do the basic texts of Islam enjoin terrorism and murder. At no point do they even consider the random slaughter of uninvolved bystanders." -Bernard Lewis in "License to Kill" (1998). Still there are extremist islamists and non-Muslim scolars and opinion makers who claim that terrorism can be legitimated with reference to the Qur'an.

Osama Bin-laden et. al., "Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders" February 23, 1998
Fatwa issued by World Islamic Front under the leadership of Bin-Laden, al-Zawahiri, Faslur Rahman et. al. "The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies -- civilians and military -- is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque and the holy mosque [Mecca] from their grip, and in order for their armies to move out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim. This is in accordance with the words of Almighty Allah, "and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together," and "fight them until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah." Download. See explanation and comment by Bernard Lewis in Foreign Affairs, Nov 1998 p14(1) "License To Kill. Usama bin Ladin’s Declaration of Jihad". Download

David Bukay, "The Religious Foundations of Suicide Bombings. Islamist Ideology". Middle East Quarterly Fall 2006, pp. 27-36.

Contemporary Islamist Ideology Authorizing Genocidal Murder - MEMRI special report no. 25 - Jan 27, 2004.
Contemporary Islamism, however, holds that Islam is now under attack, and therefore Jihad is now a war of defense, and as such has become not only a collective duty but an individual duty without restrictions or limitations. That is, to the Islamists, Jihad is a total, all-encompassing duty to be carried out by all Muslims – men and women, young and old. All infidels, without exception, are to be fought and annihilated, and no weapons or types of warfare are barred. Furthermore, according to them, current Muslim rulers allied with the West are considered apostates and infidels. This article examines contemporary Islamist sources advocating this approach to non-Muslims  Download.

Dale C. Eickheimer, "Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism" Parameters,  Spring 2007, pp. 85-98
"As David F. Forte states “We must not fail . . . to distinguish between the homicidal revolutionaries like bin Laden and mainstream Muslim believers.”" ... "Qutbism refers to the writings of Sayyid Qutb and other Islamic theoreticians, e.g., Abul Ala Maududi and Hassan al Banna, that provide the intellectual rationale underpinning Islamic-Fascism. Qutbism is not a structured body of thought from any single person (despite its name), source, time, or sect; rather it is a fusion of puritanical and intolerant Islamic orientations that include elements from both the Sunni and Shia sects of Islam that have been combined with broader Islamist goals and methodologies. Qutbism integrates the Islamist teachings of Maududi and al Banna with the arguments of Sayyid Qutb to justify armed jihad in the advance of Islam, and other violent methods utilized by twentieth century militants. Qutbism advocates violence and justifies terrorism against non-Muslims and apostates in an effort to bring about the reign of God. Others, i.e., Ayman Al-Zawahiri, Abdullah Azzam, and Osama bin Laden built terrorist organizations based on the principles of Qutbism and turned the ideology of Islamic-Fascism into a global action plan." Download

John L. Esposito, "Legitmate, illegitimate use of violence" - 24/07/07
"The Qur’an does not advocate or condone illegitimate violence or terrorism. The Islamic tradition places extensive limits on the use of violence and rejects terrorism, hijackings, and hostage taking. However, Muslims are permitted, indeed at times required to defend their religion, their families, and the Islamic community from aggression."

Alan, Godlas, "Jihad, War, Terrorism, and Peace in Islam"
This site contains key on-line litterature on the following topics: Jihad and Violence in Islam, Muslim and Arab Responses to 9/11 and Islamic Criticism of Terrorism, Afghanistan and Muslim Criticism of the Taliban, Bin Laden and His Muslim Critics, Interreligious, Scholarly, Journalistic, and American Governmental Responses to 9/11 and Beyond, Islam and Peace, Al-Qaida, Muslim Terrorists, and Islamic Terrorist Organizations, Global Terrorist Websites, Jihad Videos and Tapes, Understanding Islamic Terrorism and Terrorist Groups. Download.

Otto Helwig, "Terrorism and Islam"
Dr. Helweg, who studied Islam, classical Arabic, and the Middle Eastern culture while living in the Middle East for more than a decade, writes a straightforward article regarding the mindset of Muslims, particularly the terrorists among them. First, he describes the sharp differences in the worldview and culture of the West and Middle East, then briefly explains the effect that the Qur'an and other sacred writings have on radical Muslims. He disputes the characterization of Islam as a peaceful religion and concludes that attempts to stamp out the evil of terrorism are naive. Download.

Islamic Statements Against Terrorism

James Turner Johnson, "Jihad and Just War" - 2002
Johnson contrasts the mainstream Islamic doctrine of limited war with the radically unlimited jihad of Osama bin Laden, which expands the doctrine of emergency warfare to include the entire West (along with Israel) and makes no distinction as to targets or combatants. Bin Laden's jihad also seeks overthrow of contemporary Muslim states and their mainstream views. Download.

Warren F. Larson, "Islam and Terrorism: A Closer Look" - Evangelical Missions Quarterly 2001.
A renowned Islam scholar and former missionary to Pakistan, Dr. Larson traces the life story and global influence of one of Islam's foremost militant idealogues, Syed Qutb. He then sets forth Islam's sources for authority, including the Qur'an and Hadith, Muslim views on peace, war and other religions, its cultural hegemony and global agenda. He ends with an appeal to a humble, hopeful biblical response by Christians.  Download.

Haim Malka, "Must Innocents Die? The Islamic Debate over Suicide Attacks." Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2003.

Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism

Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Islam and the Question of Violence" - Al-Serat Vol. XIII, No. 2
 "Islam condones the use of force only to the extent of opposing that centripetal tendency which turns man against what he is in his inner reality. The use of force can only be condoned in the sense of undoing the violation of our own nature and the chaos which has resulted from the loss of equilibrium. But such a use of force is not in reality violence as usually understood. It is the exertion of human will and effort in the direction of conforming to the Will of God and in surrendering the human will to the divine." Download.

Question: What does the Qur’an say about terrorism? Islam

Roger A. Pape, "The Strategic Logic of Suide Terrorism" - American Political Science Review 93.3 2003

"U.S. Muslim Religious Council Issues Fatwa Against Terrorism" - July 28, 2005

Links on Religious Conversion

Links to conversion stories
On this site you will find links to numerous life stories of people who have converted to Christianity or to Islam.

Anti-conversion laws in India
Article in the Indian newspaper "The Hindu".

The Lina Joy Case - Apostasy in Malaysialinajoy.gif

"Note of Protest" from Concil of Christians, Buddhists, Hindus etc. - 19/06/07
"The Note of Protest highlights the personal tragedies of various ordinary Malaysians suffering anguish as a result, in one way or another, of the misuse of religion e.g. persons who are treated as “Muslims” against their will, some who are being detained for “rehabilitation” merely because they want the Government to recognise their choice of religion and women (and men) who are faced with the loss of their children merely because of the religious conversion by one spouse." Læs mere.

"A Hindu Lina Joy, subjected to Islamic “re-education”". - 15/06/07
!On June 19 in Kuala Lumpur a night time prayer vigil will be held to draw public attention to the case of Ravathi, a woman of Indian origins who is currently being held in a detention centre after the state refused to recognise her religious status as a Hindu." Læs mere

Lina Joy affair sparks apostasy debate among Muslims - - 12/06/07
"Legal experts and Islamic scholars and leaders square off before a large audience in a public debate over the conflict that pits Sharia against civil law in conversion cases. Some believe the issue has not been settled since the Qur’an is silent as to how apostasy should be punished and that what punishment that does exist “is man-made”."  Read more.

Religious Conversion and Sharia Law by Lionel Beehner - Council on Foreign Relations 08/06/07
"Malaysia is often held up as a model nation that blends modern secular institutions with a tolerant brand of Islam. Sharia, or Islamic law, is followed but in the context of a constitutional framework. A recent decision, however, by Malaysia’s high court refusing to recognize a Muslim woman’s conversion to Christianity has called into question the country’s freedom of religion and multi-faith identity. Similar cases in Afghanistan, Egypt, and Jordan also have aroused concern among Western-based rights groups about Islam’s compatibility with democracy." Read more.

We Are Not A Tribe Called ‘Muslims’ - by Farish A. Noor - The Other Malaysia - 08/06/07
"This reminds me of the words of the late Nurcholish Madjid, the most prominent Muslim intellectual of postcolonial 20th century Indonesia. He once said that "we Muslims still cannot go beyond the logic of tribalism, and we think that being a Muslim is like belonging to a tribe called ‘Muslims’. Muslims still think in these parochial, tribalist terms, and that is why when one person leaves Islam he or she is denouced as a traitor to the tribe. But Islam is not a tribal entity. Being a Muslim is not like belonging to the Blue Tribe or the Green Tribe; it is a state of mind, an existential state of being."  Read more.

Religious, Ethnic Tensions Threaten to Blow the Lid Off Malaysia’s Melting Pot - World Politics Review - 04/06/07
"Often praised as a model pluralistic society, Malaysia is showing signs of increased religious tension, and many wonder whether Kuala Lumpur's reluctance to protect non-Muslims' rights could lead to serious problems. Non-Muslims make up roughly 40 percent of Malaysia's 26 million people, and among them follow Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism." Read more.

Malaysia's sad retreat. TheStar.Com - 03/06/07
"She cannot at her own whim simply enter or leave her religion," says Chief Justice Ahmad Fairuz Abdul Halim. "She must follow rules." Yet the rule is a Catch-22 in that a Muslim-turned-Christian must appeal to an Islamic court more likely to punish her than to approve apostasy. ... Malaysia is not the only Muslim country to subordinate freedom of conscience to religion. Many do. Saudi Arabia prohibits conversion from Islam. In Afghanistan, a Muslim was threatened with the death penalty for renouncing the faith. And a few years ago, Jordan convicted a Muslim for converting." Read more.

Angela C. Wu, "A Show of Bad Faith". The Wall Street Journal 01/06/07
"As Islamist protestors’ shouts of “Allah-o-Akbar” echoed through Putrajaya’s Palace of Justice, the Malaysian Federal Court Wednesday reaffirmed that religion is determined by court orders and not personal conscience. The two-to-one landmark decision by the country’s highest court marks a monumental setback to religious freedom and human rights in Malaysia, a secular country increasingly influenced by Islamism."  Read more.

Malaysia’s Lina Joy loses Islam conversion case - Washington Post / Reuter 30/5/07
"Malaysia's best known Christian convert, Lina Joy, lost a six-year battle on Wednesday to have the word "Islam" removed from her identity card, after the country's highest court rejected the change. ... Malaysia's Council of Churches was saddened. "We still go by the possibility that the constitution allows any citizen of the country to exercise his or her right to choose a religion and practice it," council secretary Rev. Hermen Shastri said outside the court."I don't think this decision is going to stop an individual from exercising that right for whatever reason."" Read more.

Kuala Lumpur refuses to recognise Lina Joy’s conversion to Christianity - 30/05/´07
"The Federal Court has referred the case of Lina Joy, a women seeking legal recognition of her conversion from Islam, to the Islamic courts. The country’s contradicting laws are laid bare: religious freedom guaranteed by the Constitution cannot co-exist with Islamic law, which is increasingly imposed on the nation’s citizen’s even non-Muslims." Read more.

Wikipedia: Lina Joy
"Lina Joy is a Malay convert from Islam to Christianity. Born Azlina Jailani in 1964 in Malaysia to Muslim parents, she converted at age 26. In 1998, she was baptized, and applied to have her conversion legally recognized by the Malaysian courts. Though her change of name was recognized in 1999 and so noted on her identity card, her change of religion was not (since it is without the Mahkamah Syariah confirmation document); for this reason, she filed suit with the High Court in 1999, bypassing the Syariah Court (Islamic court). She later filed suit with the Federal Court in 2006. Joy hopes to live openly as a Christian; she was forced to go into hiding by the publicity surrounding her case." Read more.

Research projects on conversion

Spiritual Transformation Scientific Research Program
The Metanexus Institute on Religion and Science in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US in 2002 launched its research program on the nature of spiritual transformation. The Spiritual Transformation Scientific Research Program will include the sponsoring of 10 research projects some of which will be featured at a public conference in October 2005 and an ongoing networking and collaboration to develop and sustain on-going scientific studies of diverse spiritual and religious phenomena.

On-line Literature on Conversion between Religions

On-line literature collected, screend and commented by Mogens S. Mogensen.

Anthony, Dick & Thomas Robbins, "Conversion and 'Brainwashing' in New Religious Movements"
This article, which was later pubhlished in a revised edition in The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, ed. by James R. Lewis (2004), focuses on involuntary conversion from the perspective of the brainwashing theory. The article gives a summary of the research and presents a critique of it. Download.

Robert J. Barro and Jason Hwang, "Religious Conversion in 40 Countries" (2007)
The study concludes that ”Empirical findings for a panel of countries accord with several hypotheses: religious-conversion rates are positively related to religious pluralism, gauged by adherence shares; negatively related to government restrictions on religious conversion; positively related to levels of education; and negatively related to a history of Communism. Conversion rates are not much related to per capita GDP, the presence of state religion, and the extent of religiosity. Effects from the type of religion adherence are minor, except for a negative effect from Muslim adherence.”  Download.

Blouin, Samuel, Rethinking Conversion: Beyond the religious and the secular. (European University Institute Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. Relgiowest. Working Paper 2016)
”Therefore, I posit that “religion without conversions” (understood as purely individual change) gave way to “conversions without religion” which implies that religion has been downplayed to the status of one of many possible kinds of convictions. This proposition should be understood less as a descriptive statement than a working hypothesis that could bring about fruitful ways of rethinking the phenomen on of conversion. I argue that there is no sociological reason a priori to study conversions involving religious, sexual, political and philosophical convictions as separate phenomena. Focusing on religious identity change fails to acknowledge the variety of conversions thattake place in the contemporary world.” Download.

Box, Rogier, Conversion Converted
The article summaries an article with the same name by Brad Kallenberg and his book
"Live to Tell - Evangelism for a Postmodern Age", both of which contain an evangelical redeninition of conversion in a postmodern contest. Download.

Brice, Kevin, A Minority within a Minority. A Report on Converts to Islam in the United Kingdom (Faith Matters, 2011)
The survey estimates that in 2010 5.200 people in Great Britain converted to Islam, and that the total number of converts in 2010 reached 100.000. Download.

Bromley, Bromley,  Brainwashing and Conversion
David G. Bromley, "A Tale of Two Theories: Brainwashing and  Conversion as Competing
Political Narratives", i Benjamin Zablocki and Thomas Robbins (eds.), Misunderstanding Cults.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001, 318-348. Læs mere.

Calvert, Pamela, "Media and Metanoia. Documentary 'Impact' through the Lens of Conversion" (2003)
The article discusses the relation between communication and conversion, or rather attempts to undersand religtious communication through the media from modern conversion theories.  Download.

Conversion to Judaism


Converts to Islam
A website designed especialy for converts to Islam. Read more.

Current Dialgue 50 Februar 2008
This issue is devoted to the discussion of conversion. The issue contains documents from two conferences held in Lariano 2006 and Toulouse 2007 organised by The Pontifical Council ofr Interreligious Dialogue and the Programme on Dialogue and Cooperation of the World Council of Churches. Download.

Duin, Julia, "Daring Leaps of Faith" (The Washington Times)
Interviews and stories about converts from Islam to Christianity in the US. Download.

Dwarswaard, Esther, Proselytism and Conversion Zeal (Paper July 2010)
"Proselytism confronts Western development workers in various ways. They may be confronted with national and international missionary activities from mostly Christian and Islamic organisations. In those cases, power plays an important role in these activities: not only in a financial way, but also psychologically. Especially in non-stable multi-religious settings these missionary activities may contribute to increasing conflicts between (religious/ethnic) groups. On the other hand, Western development workers from Faith Based Organisations may be falsely accused of converting the people they work for. In order to prevent these accusations, religious development organisations should either conceal their religious inspiration, or be completely open about it, depending on the circumstances they work in. If they choose an open attitude, it may help to use and internalize ethical guidelines." Download.

Guzik, Elysia, "The Search for Meaning: Information Seeking and Religious Conversion". Paper presented
"Based on a search for peer-reviewed articles and conference proceedings in the major library and information science (LIS), religious studies, anthropology, and sociology databases, this paper includes what Marci a J. Bates has called a “rigorous systematic bibliography”(1976). I identify ways in which the concept of information seeking in the religious conversion process has been presented in the literature under subject terms, incombination with keyword searching." Download.

How to Become a Jew
En kort guide for dem, der overvejer at konvertere til jødedommen. Læs mere.

How to Convert to Islam and Become a Muslim
"The steps a person needs to take to accept Islam as his/her religion, enter its fold, and become a Muslim". Read more.

Ijuzu, Christopher I, "Conversion" in Traditional African Religions
Ijuzu discusses in this article, if you many talk about conversion in t raditional African religions. Download.

Inaba, Keishin , "Conversion to New Religious Movements" (2004)
This article by the Japanese sociologist of religion at Kobe University Keishin Inaba contains a reassessment of the Lofland/Skovnod conversion motifs and the Lofland/Start conversion process. Download.

Ipgrave, Michael, Reflections on Conversion in Interfaith Context
Michael Ipgrave, der er anglikansk præst med stor erfaring omkring dialog og mission i England, giver en spændende redegørelse for en række problematikker i forbindelse med omvendelse i dialogen mellem religionerne, hvor man ofte tager afstand fra eller forbigår omvendelse. Download.

James, William, The Variety of Religious Experience
Read (most of) the classic on conversion by William James online. William James - biography
is a 5-pages biography of William James with a short summary of his theories on conversion. Download.

Jindra, Ines W., "How Religious Content Matters in Conversion Narratives to Various Religious Groups". Sociology of Religion - a Quarterly Review 72(3):275-302.
"My aim in this article is two-fold. Based on the detailed discussion of three case studies originating from an interdisciplinary comparative analysis of 50 narrative biographical interviews with converts to the Jehovah's Witnesses, Islam, Christianity, Unitarian Universalists, and Baha'i in the Midwestern United States, and the data of this larger study, I intend to analyze first how converts’ motives (“push factors”) and reasons for conversion (“pull factors”) (Allievi 1999) interact to form trajectories which differ from group to group. Secondly, some preliminary findings regarding “life course agency” and network influence are offered. After a discussion of the state of research on conversion and a description of the methodology, the three case studies and findings from the larger study will be highlighted, followed by a presentation of factors that studies of conversion should take into account."  Download.

Kraft, Kathryn Ann, Searching for Heaven in the Real World: A Sociological Discussion of Conversion in the Arab World (2013). Review by Duane Alexander Miller
"Kathryn Kraft’s book is a study of groups of converts from Islam to Christianity in Egypt and Lebanon. Working in the field of sociology of religion, she attempts to analyse and understand the consequences of the decision to leave Islam and embrace a Christian faith. ... In making the dangerous and difficult move of converting they are hoping for heaven on earth, but in fact meet with disappointment on multiple levels. They are disappointed by churches that don’t welcome them, by missionaries who are overbearing or pastors who are disconnected, they are alienated from their (Muslim) families and nations, they are disappointed by the intolerance of Islamic law, and so on ..." Download.

Kreider, Alan, "Conversion and Culture in Early Christianity"
Alan Kreider analyses how the understanding and praxis of conversion was in the church in the first centuries. Download.

Leone, Massimo, "Religious Conversion and Identity. The Semiotic Analysis of Texts."

Lerer & Mayer, In the Footsteps of Ruth: A Sociological Analysis of Conversion to Judaism among American Jews
A research report from a research project on conversion to Judaism in the United States. Theire hypothesis is that conversion to Judaism contains two separate dimensions, a religious and a socio-cultural dimension. Download.

Lerner, Natan, Proselytism, change of religion, and international human rights
This 38 pages long article gives an excellent introduction to the field of conversion, apostacy, proselytism, evangelisation, mission and human rights (the article is printed in Emory International Law Review, 12, 1, pp. 478-561). Download.

Malony, Henry Newton, "The Psychology of Religious Conversion" (1998)
An interesting introduction to the psychology of religious conversion by a professor at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California, presented in a short 4-page paper at a conference on "Religious Freedom and the New Millennium", in Tokyo, Japan, 1998. Download,

Månsson, Anna, Becoming Muslim. Meanings of Conversion to Islam
Introduction to the book with an abstract. Read more.

Mason, John Edwin, ""Some Religion He Must Have": Slaves, Sufism and Conversion at the Cape"
Paper presented at a seminar i Georgia in 1999. "The more we learn about the role sufism played in the growth and consolidation of Islam at the Cape, the more probable it seems that we must revise our understanding of the grounds for and meaning of conversion." Read more.

Meral, Ziya, No Place to Call Home. Experiences of Apostates from Islam. Failures of the International Community (Christians Solidarity Worldwide, 2008)
This report calls on Muslim nations, the international community, the UN and the international media to resolutely address the serious violations of human rights suffered by apostates. Download.

Mendosa, Flores & Sarah Haioty, and Harun Gadzo,  "Fools Rush In: Where Faith, Race, and Fundamentalism Intersect in Denmark's Convert Communities " (2008) A 20 page paper on conversion between Islam and Christianity in Denmark.

Miller, Duane Alexander, Living among the Breakage: Contextual Theology-making and ex-Muslim Christians (PhD draft 2013)
Duane Alexander Miller has submitted his PhD dissertation on conversion of Muslims to Christianity and their theology-making. "Since the 1960’s there has been a marked increase in the number of known conversions from Islam to Christianity. This thesis asks whether certain of these ex-Muslim Christians engage in the process of theology-making and, if so, it asks what these theologies claim to know about God and humans’ relation to God." He argues "that ex-Muslim Christians are engaged in theology-making, that areas of interest to them include theology of the church, salvation and baptism, and that the dominant metaphor in these theologies is a conceptualization of love and power that sees the two divine traits as inseparable from each other; they represent a knowledge about who God is and what he is like, which, in their understanding, is irreconcilable with their former religion, Islam.". Download dissertation draft.

Paloutzian, Raymond F.  & James T. Richardson and Lewis R. Rambo, "Religious Conversion and Personality Change". Journal of Personality 67,6, 2011

Popp-Baier, U., "Narrated Embodied Aims. Self-transformation in Conversion Narratives - A Psychological Analysis".
The author uses Peter Stromberg' theories on conversion as an attachment om the convert's story to a religious canon in an analysis of the story of a convert to charismatic Christianity.  Read more.

Price, Kevin, A minority within a Minority. A Report on Converts to Islam in the United Kingdom (Faith Matters 2011)
According to the report, in 2010 5200 people converted to Islam, bringing the total of converts to islam in Great Britain to about 100.000. Download.

Rambo, Lewis, "The Psychology of Religious Conversion" (1998)
A short lecture delivered at a Conference on "Religious Freedom and the New Millenium" in Berlin, Germany, May 29-31, 1998. Download.

Religious Conversion
Article in dictionary with brief survey on conversion i various religions.Read more.

Religious Conversion Bibliography
An up-to-date (2003) 80 page religious conversion biography (pdf), covering theoretical perspectives, ancient world, medieval world, conversions in many geographical areas, Jews, Muslims and modernity. Download.

Romain, Jonathan A. , Guide for Those Considering Conversion
Ten pieces of advice for those considering conversion, developed by the author of the book "Your God Shall Be My God. Religious Conversion in Britain Today" (2000), Jonathan Romain, who himself is a Jew. Download.

Sebastian, J. Jayakiran, "A Fresh Look at the Issue of Conversion and Baptism in relation to Mission"
Jayakiran of Gurukul Seminary endeavours to to situate and problematize various issues in relation to baptism, conversion, and mission in India today.In his conclusion he writes, that "Avoiding superficiality which skims the surface without dirtying oneself, a fresh look at these questions demands of us a faith commitment to the source of renewal, to that lonely and betrayed person, whose own baptism in the river Jordan, was a symbol of his commitment to being a part of messy human existence. Download.

The Conversion Crisis: The Current Debate on Religion, State and Conversion in Israel
"The current controversy surrounding pending Knesset legislation barring non-Orthodox conversions to Judaism in Israel is only the most recent attempt to determine by pre-state custom, legislation, judicial decision, or political compromise the definition and expression of Jewishness and Judaism in the Jewish State."
Læs mere.

Theology, News and Notes: Conflicting Understandings on Christian Conversion (2003)
May 2003 issue of Theology, News and Notes, from Fuller Theological Seminary, is a special issue on conversion edited by Richard V. Peace. It contains articles by Gordon T. Smith ("Making Sense of Conversion"), Richard V. Peace ("Conflicting Understandings of Christian Conversion"), Brad J. Kallenberg ("The 'P'-word - Conversion in a Postmodern World"), Andrew Wingate ("Converting away from Christianity"), Newton Malony (Conversion as 'Psycholingtusitic Labeling'"), Lewis R. Rambo ("Researching Religious Conversion") and others. Download.

Trade and the Spread of Islam in Africa
A short survey article on the conversion of Africans to Islam. Read more.

World Council of Churches and the Vatican, Codes of Conduct for Conversion 
The World Council of Churches and the Vatican have started to cooperate in order to develop guidelines for conversion between religions - with a view to including representatives of other religions. The study project is entiteled "Interreligious reflection on conversion: from controversy to a shared code of conduct". Read more.

Yang, Fengang,"Chinese conversion to evangelical Christianity: the importance of social and cultural contexts" (1998)
A study of Chinese converts to evangelical Protestantism in the United States is based on interviews and ethnographic observations in the Greater Washington, D.C. area. Download.

Zock, Hetty, "Paradigms in Psychological Conversion Research. Between Social Science and Literary Analysis"
"In this essay I focus on the contribution of the psychology of religion, in which conversion has long been an important subject. ...  First, I trace the theoretical changes in psychological conversion research by looking at how and why psychologists of religion ‘convert’ from one theory, approach or view of conversion to another, with a particular focus on ruling paradigms and their relations to the scientific, societal, cultural and religious contexts.  .. Second, I argue that the paradigm emerging in current psychological conversion research – what I call the biographical-narrative paradigm – offers a promising perspective for an interdisciplinary study of conversion in a pluralistic context, combin- ing literary, historical and social-scientific approaches." Download.


Articles in English by Mogens S. Mogensen:

Migration and Conversion. The Conversion of Immigrants in a Danish Context (2007)
In Thormod Engelsviken & Thor Strandenæs (eds.), Mission to the World. Communicating the Gospel in the 21st Century.  Essays in Honour of Knud Jørgensen. Download.

Conversion between Islam and Christianity in a Danish Context
A paper presented at a conference in Aarhus in May 2002. Later printed as
Mogensen, Mogens S. Mogensen, "Conversion between Islam and Christianity in a Danish Context". In Theology and the Religions. A Dialogue, Viggo Mortensen. Pp. 287-317. Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans, 2003. Download.


Hindu Attitudes to Conversion


Frawley, David, "The Ethics of Conversion"
Read more..

Saraswathi, Swami Dayananda, "Conversion destroys religious harmony".
Read more

Religious Conversionapostasybook.jpg

This section of the website will - based on my research on and interest in conversions between Christianity, Islam and other religions - present various materials concerning different aspects of conversion. To contact me, write to Denne e-mail adresse bliver beskyttet mod spambots. Du skal have JavaScript aktiveret for at vise den..

Conversion - humour
"Plug'n Pray kits are equipped with everything you need to get converterd quickly". Read more.

Hindu: Conversion Destroys Religious Harmony
In an article in  "The New Indian Express" 21/1/08 Swamis calls on all religions to stop engaging in conversion activities, since conversion disturbs peace in society. Read more.

Broad Ecumenical Process towards Code of Conduct for Interreligious Conversion
August 16: The World Council of Churches and the Vatican have initiated a ecumenical process with the aim of developing a code of conduct for conversion. August 8-12 a consultation was held in Toulouse, France. Read more.

The Lina Joy Case - Apostasy in Malaysia
A Muslim women in 1990 began to attend church. In 1998 she converted to Christianity and was baptised. In 2000 she applied to have her national registration changed from Muslim to Christian. Now a Federal Court in Kuala Lumpur has refused this and thereby undermined the religious freedom in Malaysia. Read more.

Ex-Muslims Organise Themselves
Muslims who have deconverted, that is left Islam, and thus become apostates in the eyes of Muslims, have organised themselves. In England they have formed the organisation "Apostates of Islam": We are ex-Muslims. Some of us were born and raised in Islam and some of us had converted to Islam at some moment in our lives. ... Some of us have embraced other religions but most of us have simply left Islam without believing in any other religion." Read more.

Links on Missional Church                  


Building Bridges of Hope
Dette britiske projekt præsenterer sig selv som en læringsproces for kirkerne i England, Skotland, Wales og Irland med det formål at finde ud af, hvilke måder at relatere til den lokale miljøer og grupper er mest effektive, når det gælder om for kirken at være i mission. Projektets hovedformål er "action-research for changing church in a changing world".

Emerging Church
Netværk med informationer om "Emerging Church" bevægelsen. "...the emerging church seeks to deconstruct and reconstruct Christianity as its mainly Western members live in a postmodern culture..." (Wikipedia).

EuroChurch provides a platform for dialogue and sharing to facilitate unity and strength in the Church in Europe. In different shapes and forms has been serving the Church in Europe since 1981. We started as a group of Europeans who were interested in the growth of the church across the continent. We have since evolved into a network that spans Europe and our members come from a range of organisations and movements.

Fresh Expressions
"Fresh Expressions" er et initiativ taget af Church of England (ærkebiskopperne i Canterbury og York)  i 2004 for at opmuntre til - og skabe muligheder og resourcer for - mission gennem nye udtryk for kirke i hvert stift inden 2010 

Newbigin Net
Newbigin Net er et online forsknings-website, hvis mål er at give teologiske studerende og lærere en række redskaber til et dybtgående studium af Lesslie Newbigins tanker, inkl. missionsteologi, økumeni, og evangeliet og kulturen. Websitet indeholder en dynamisk database, som man kan søge på, ang. Newbigins liv og skrifter. er et forum for mission i den postmoderne verden, især for Generation  Xere og Generation Millennium. Dette web-site indeholder relevante ressourcer og et debatforum.

The Gospel and Our Culture Network - UK
Dette netværk bygger på Lesslie Newbigins arbejde, siden han i 1974 vendte hjem til England efter 35 år som missionær i Indien og oplevede England som en udfordrende missionsmark. Dette website indeholder store mængder ressourcer.

The London Institute for Contemporary Christianity



Allelon - Companions of the Gospel
Allelon er et amerikansk initiativ, som i 1999 blev taget af fonden med samme navn for at være en resource for kirken mhp at udvikle kirken i missional retning. Websitet indeholder en række spændende resourcer, men for at få udbytte heraf må brugeren tilmelde sig Allelon, hvilket er gratis. 

Center for Parish Development
Dette center, hvis adresse netop er, er et økumenisk center i Chicago, USA, har som formål  "to help churches strive to become more faithful and effective missional communities that engage the culture with the gospel, liberate themselves from Christendom bondage, and equip themselves to discern and participate in God's redemptive mission."

Church Innovations
"Church Innovations is a non-profit organization devoted to renewing the Church’s focus on God’s mission in the world. Rooted in the Gospel of Jesus Christ and wholly committed to following God’s leading for every congregation, we provide research and consulting tools, products and processes that increase your church’s capacities to experience God’s renewal and transformation." Lederen for instituttet, der ligger i tilknytning til Luther Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota, er Patrick Keifert. Også Craig Van Gelder er tilknyttet dette center.

Emerging Church
En gruppe medlemmeraf The Evangelical Lutheran Church of America ahar udviklet et spændende website, der fokuserer på "the emerging church", den kirke, som der er brug for i det 21. århundredes postmoderne kultur. "responding to the postmodern mission context is something that churches of all denominations are called to do to be theologically precise, there really is no such thing as a "postmodern church" so don't try and start one, but there are churches who are "learning the language" and are ministering effectively within the postmodern culture". 

Mennonite Church - Eastern Canada - Missional Church
Denne hjemmeside indeholder spændende teologiske og praktiske overvejelser om, hvad det vil sige at være en missional menighed.

Missional Leadership Institute
MLI er Dr. Alan Roxburghs institut for missionalt lederskab. Instituttets vision er "to accelerate the transformation of congregations and denominational systems towards missional engagement through the development of leaders. Our resources are directed toward assisting the church and church organizations to engage the new missional realities of western cultures" er et website med mange artikler om missional-kirke relaterede emner, samt en weblog med relevante diskussioner om emnet.

Next-Wave Church and Culture
Drømmen er, "To bring together Christians from all walks of life, including pastors, church planters and leaders across denominational and national borders, who want to reach out to people in postmodern culture, and who understand that, in order to do so, significant changes need to be made in the way we run and organize our churches."

The Gospel & Our Culture Network - US
Det amerikanske Gospel and Our Culture Network er lige som det engelske stærkt inspireret af Lesslie Newbigins arbjede

X-Culture The Church and Canada in Our Time
"Xculture [cross-culture] aims to bring high-grade thinking, preparation and action together in an effort to further  the conversation about the church and culture in Canada while at the same time avoiding both a 'theory only' and 'practice without thought' approach." 

Willow Creek Community Church & Willow Creek Association
Willow Creek Community Church er en kirke i Chicago, hvis leder er Bill Hybels.


Missional International Church Network
"MICN is a group of leaders from international churches around the world who desire to dialogue together about how God is working in their settings. We organize learning experiences and coach missionally-minded leaders." Dette website indeholder mange interessante ressourcer og links.
International Fellowship of Evanglical Students, which is found in ovr 145 countries, helps students engage in missional activities at campuses.

Missional International Church Network
"MICN is a group of leaders from international churches around the world who desire to dialogue together about how God is working in their settings. We organize learning experiences and coach missionally-minded leaders." Dette website indeholder mange interessante ressourcer og links.

Videos on Missional Church


Patrick Keifert, On how he became interested in missional church
Alan Roxburgh interviews Patric Keifert on Missional Church. Click here.

Graham Gray, "Fresh Expressions of the Mission Shaped Church"
Alan Roxburgh interviews bishop Graham Gray, who was involved in the writing of the book "The Mission Shaped Church. Click here.

Eddie Gibbs, On the Missional Church.
Alan Roxburgh interviews Eddie Gibbs. Part 2, click here.

Craig Van Gelder, What Is Missional Church?
Alan Roxburgh interviews Craig van Gelder; professor of congregational mission at Luther Seminary in St. Paul, MN. Click here.


Missional Churchkristus2.jpg

The established churches in the West are in the middle of a paradigm shift. The role of the church in societies is changing and there is a need for a new understanding of what it means to be church today. This page will focus on key issues and dimensions of what it means to be and act as a missional church.

Fresh Expression of the Church
"Fresh Expressions" is an anitiative taken by the Church of England and the Methodist church focusing on new ways to be church. To visit the website, click here. It is a follow up to the report on Mission Shaped Church.
Visit this website which features interesting articles on missional church - related issues, and a weblog with good discussions on the tocip. Click here.

Which Story Will Shape the Church in the 21st Century?
Article by Ingrace Dietric on the role of Bible study for the missional church. What difference does it make if it is the story of Constantine or the story of Jesus Christ that forms the church?  Read article.We also recommend Take Time to Be Holy: Cultivating the Missional Church that contains good questions for group discussions.

Experiencing Life at the Margins
"One of the greatest threats to the North American church is the deception of power - the deception of being at the center. Those at the center tend to think, "The future belongs to us. We are the shapers of tomorrow. The process of gospel transmission, the process of mission - all of it is on our terms, because we ar powerful, because we are established. We have a track record of success, after all." To read all the interview with bishop Niringiye, Uganda, in Christianity Today Juli 2006, click here.


American Society of Missiology 
The American Society of Missiology consists of 600 scholars, missions agency executives, and missionaries and also publishes Missiology: An International Review.

Association of Professors of Mission
"Organized in 1952, the APM exists to promote among its members Christian fellowship, spiritual life and professional usefulness. We are comprised of missions professors and academics from Evangelical, Conciliar, and Catholic backgrounds committed to the common cause of teaching mission well."

Center for the Study of Global Christianity
On this website, operated by The Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary you will find a very interesting  "World Christian Database", which contains information on 34.000 Christian denominations and on religions in all countries of the world. It also holds information about 238 countries and 130000 ethnolinguistic people groups etc.

European Evangelical Mission Association
"The EEMA exists to explore, inspire, envision and equip cross-cultural mission in Europe by: – facilitating consultations across Europe – addressing key mission issues – providing opportunities for networking – supporting new and existing initiatives – resourcing – encouraging mutual learning and respect"

Evangelical Missiological Society
"We are a professional society with more than 350 members comprised of missiologists, mission administrators, teachers, pastors with strategic missiological interests, and students of missiology."

Global Connections
Global Connections (formally the UK Evangelical Missionary Alliance) is a network of mission agencies, colleges, development organisations, churches and others, all committed to world mission, and to working together where possible. Useful website with downloadable papers on mission issues, codes of practice, etc.

International Association for Mission Studies 
is an international, interdenominational and intercultural body committed to the scholarly study of issues related to Christian mission. The main objects of the Association are among other things to promote the scholarly study of theological, historical and practical questions relating to the mission of the Church. The website contains a wealth of ressources such as lists of names of missiologists, research aids, information about ongoing research and articles. The IAMS also publishes the journal Mission Studies.

National Mission Movements Directory
List of national mission movements and organisations worldwide with description and contact information.

Oscar - the UK information service for world mission
This website contain a lot of useful practical and theoretical information about world mission, incl. an opportunity zone, a service zone and a supporter zone and possibilities for interactivity.
A network of people committed to Christian mission but who want to escape from the tired missionary models of the Modern era. A voice for Postmodern cross-cultural mission workers (Xers, Millennials and beyond) and would-be missionaries who feel they don't fit in the missions scene.A community for those Xers and Millennials (and others) who are struggling with issues related to postmodernity and cross-cultural mission and have no-one who understands what they are on about - you are not alone! A forum for those who want to do find creative ways to do cross-cultural mission that is both authentically Christian and authentically postmodern.A resource for mission agency leaders who are anxious to bridge the gap with their younger colleagues, and indeed anyone who wants to find out about the implications of Postmodernity for Christian Mission. - Mission

This website contains articles on mission. Full texts by recognized scholars.

SEDOS is a Catholic organisation working with religion, misison and church. The website hold valuable articles on religion, church and mission.

Seedbed is a growing network that seeks to identify, nurture, promote, disseminate and generally encourage innovation in Christian mission in all its forms. In many ways a sister site to, but with a vision that goes wider that the issues of postmodernity and looks at the impact of two-thirds world missionary movements, globalization, and the other big forces for change in our time.

Southern African Missiological Society. 
The Southern African Missiological Society (SAMS) is a scholarly society for the study of Christian mission. The SAMS also publishes the journal Missionalia.

Religion and Culturetaj_mahal.gif

Today Denmark is becoming a multiethnic, multireligious and multicultural society. Because of the globalisation ethnic groups, religions and cultures interact more and more closely. Some people experience this closer contact primarily as a challenge, others as a threat. No matter what our attitude towards this development is we all  more than ever need intercultural and interreligious understanding. On the this site I will point out ressources that may be used to further mutual understanding, dialogue and peaceful co-existence.

Links on Cultures and Religions
This page contains a number of relevant links to organisations and databases with ressources about cultures and religions.

Report on conference on theology of religions in Birmingham
June 24 25 Univrsity of Bimingham held a conference under the title  "To What Ultimate End? Interreligious Dialogue and the Future". Among the lecturers were world famous theologians of religions such as John Hick, Paul Knitter and Mark Heim. The report is available in two versions:Report - text only.

Fulani Video

Fulani Girls Singing 1
Fulani girls from Niger singing.

Fulani Girls Singing 2
Fulani girls from Niger singing.

Fulanis in West Africa

The Fulanis are the largest nomadic people in Africa which you encounter on the savanna in about 20 countries from Senegal in the Wet over Nigeria to the Sudan in the East. Traditionally they have been cattle people and therefore nomads. The first Fulanis converted to Islam a thousand years ago and today the Fulani people is considered to be a Muslim people. Recently a number of churches and mission agencies have initiated ministries among Fulanis in order to assist them in the difficult adaptation to the modern society and share the gospel with them. Today a few thousand out of the about 20 million Fulanis are Christians. On this site we will inform about the religion and culture of the Fulani people and about the Christian ministry among this people.

Litterature on Fulanis and Fulani Mission
This page contains articles on Fulanis and mission among Fulanis, mainly articles written by Mogens S. Mogensen and others. Click here.

Links on Fulanis and Fulani Mission
This page presents a number of relevant links concerning Fulanis and Fulani mission. Click here.

Videos on Fulanis
Click here.

Links on Religions

Religioscope is a web site in English and French, which opened in January 2002. The goal is to offer informationa and analyses on religious factors in today's world. It endeavours to be both up-to-date and to point out the historical roots and backgrounds. It contains many interesting articles and interviews on religious issues.

Religion & Ethics
BBC's very informative website on religion and ethics.
Religion-Online is an imp+ressive collection of articles written by recognized scholars on religious and cultural issues.

SEDOS is a catholic organisation working academically with religion, mission and church. This website contains a number of interesting articles on these issues.

Forum 18
Forum 18 is an Oslo based group committed to religious freedom for all on the basis of Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Forum 18 has a News Service as a Christian web and e-mail initiative to report on threats and actions against the religious freedom of all people, whatever their religious affiliation, in an objective, truthful and timely manner.

Interreligious Dialogue



Dialogue Documents
Read more.

Links to international dialogue fora and initiatives
Read more.

On-line litterature on mission in English

On-line books and articles collected, screened and commented by Mogens S. Mogensen.

Allen, Roland,  The Sponaneous Expansionof the Church (1927)
A classic in missiology. Download.

Hansen, Flemming   "Mission, Church and Tradition in Context" - summary
A 5 page-summary of the PhD dissertation by Flemming Hansen. A pioneer work presenting an emic understanding of the encounter between Lutheran Christianity and traditional African religion in Tanzania.  Download.

Kärkïnen, Veli Mati, "Theologies of Religion" Fuller - Theology News and Notes 2010

Mission and Postmodernities. Swedish Missiological Themes. Vol 95 No. 4. 2007
Papers presented at a NIME confernce in Turku/Åbo, Finland in August 2007.

Mortensen, Viggo, ed., "The Role of Mission in the Future of Lutheran Missiology" (2003)
Papers presented at a preconference in connection with conference on the future of Lutheran theology in Aarhus University January 2003. Contains among others papers by Eduard H. Schroeder, Philip Baker, Johannes Nissen and Viggo Mortensen.

Søltoft, Pia, "Søren Kierkegaard on Mission in Christendom" (2007)
Article in Swedish Missiological Themes Vol. 95. No. 4 pp. 395-404.

Theology - News and Notes - Theology of Religions (2005)
This issue off News and Notes from Fuller Theological Seminary contain articles about the theologies of religion of Barths, Pannenberg a.o. Read articles by Jacques Matthey, WCC, Veli Matti Kärkäinen, Fuller, Kirsteen Kim, Selly Oak Colleges etc.

Thompson, T. Jack, "Capturing the Image: African Missionary Photography as Enslavement and Liberation (2007)
"African missionary photography operated in the borderlands between idea and reality, between enslavement and liberation. Precisely where that border runs remains a matter for ongoing discussion". The article contains a number of historical photos that are analysed in view of enslavement and liberation.

Collections of On-line articles and books:

Lausanne Documents
This website gives you access to the Primary Lausanne Documents, the Lausanne Occasional Papers and Other Lausanne Documents, all in all more than 50 online mission documents. Read more.

"Researching World Christianity - Doctoral Dissertations on Mission since 1900"
This database incorporates compilations of missions-related dissertations published in the July 1983, July 1993, and July 2003 issues of the International Bulletin of Missionary Research, and has been expanded in its scope. Read more.

Mission and Dialoguemads_christoffersen.gif

Edinburgh 2010
In 1910, Edinburgh was the venue for the historic World Missionary Conference. This was a gathering which caught an epoch-making vision of the church as a truly global missionary community. As the centenary of this event approaches, it is time to reflect on its significance in the light of the experience of the past hundred years and the realities of Christian Mission in the 21st century. Follow this reflection and read about evants and papers here.

Fulanis - the nomads of West and Central Africa
The Fulanis are the largest nomadic people in Africa. You meet them on the Savanna from Senegal to Sudan. Some Fulanis became Muslims a thousand years ago, and today they are considered to be a Muslim people. During the latest decateds a number of Fulanis have become Christians. Read more





Links on Islam & Christianity

BBC Religion & Ethics - Islam
BBC's website on Islam contains a lot of useful information about history, doctrines, ethics, rituals, art etc of Islam.
A categorised listing of useful links on Islam, its beleifs and practises; includes
Salafi and Arab-owned Islamic resources. I also contains introductions for potential and new Muslims.

This website is run by members of Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project with the purpose of presenting Islamic resources relating to history, law, Islamic society and religion with special emphasis on shi'ite (twelver) theology. The site also contains conversion stories. - Islam
This website contains articles on Islam written by recognized scholars - ready to download.

Centers for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations

On this page we will present centres for the study of Islam and Christian-Muslim relations,

Centre for Islamic Studies, London, England
CIS is located at the London Bible College.

Center for Muslim Christian Understanding (CMCU), Washington, DC, US

Centre for the Study of Islam and Christianity (CSIC), Birmingham, England
CSIC is part of Birmingham University and offers academic training at master's and doctoral levels. CSCI is set up in cooperation between Christian and Muslim scholars.

Christian Study Center (CSC), Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Fuller Theological Seminary, School of World Mission, Pasadena, CA, US

Global Mission Institue, Luther Seminary, St. Paul, MN, US

Henry Martyn Institute, Hyderabad, India

International Institute for the Study of Islam and Christianity, London, England

Ponticical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies (PISAI), Rome, Italy
This center is run by the socalled White Fathers, the Missionaries of Africa. It offers a wide range of degree programs incl. doctoral studies. The focus is on the textual study of Islam.

St. John of Damascus Faculty of Theology, Tripoli, Lebanon

Zwemer Institute of Muslim Studies, Fort Wayne, Indiana
The institute is related to the Lausanne Movement and is locaed at Concordia Theological Seminary. It focuses more on folk Islam than on formal Islam.

The Texts of Islam - on line

Yusuf Ali''s translation to English, click here.

Al-Bukhari in English, click here.
Muslim in English, click here.
Abu Dawud in English, click here.

Law Schools
Maliki: Maliki ibn Abas, Muwatta, in English, click here.

Tafsir - Qur'an Commentary
Ibn Kathir in English, click here.

Glossaries etc
Glossary of Islamic terms in English, click here.

On-line Literature on Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations

Literature in English
To access on-line literature in English collected, screened and commented by Mogens S. Mogensen, click here.


Interfaith Issuesleicester7norman.gif

Etiquette for Meetings between Christians and MuslimsThe Christian Muslim Forum in England has developed a practical guideline for meetings between Christians and Muslims. How should we treat each other when we meet? How should we greet each other? Download.

LWF Inter-religious Study on Conflict and Peace between Christians and Muslims
The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) has initiated a study process on conflict and peace between Christians and Muslims with a special focus on Indonesia, Nigeria and Denmark. See the report on the visit to Denmark. Download.

Islam in Europa - an Interactive Review
How many Muslims are their in each country in Europe? How many percent of the population? What is the history behind the Muslim presence? How is the ethnic composition of the Muslim population? Get answers to your questions on this interactive webpage: Islam in Europe.

Photos & Videos


Danmission/BLC/BLMD evaluation in Bangladesh, February 2006. Click here.

Dialogue conference in Abu Dhabi, April 2006. Click here.

Study tour with Danish bishops to Leicester, April 2006. Click here

Christian-Muslim Dialogue Conference Nyborg August 2006, Click here.

Mission conference (IAMS/NIME) in Paris, August 2006. Click here.

List of academic articles and book in Danish and English
by Mogens S. Mogensen


Mogens S. Mogensen
Born November 21,1950

1976                  Cand. mag from University of Aarhus in history and theology  
1981                  Islam studies at Selly Oak Colleges – Birmingham, UK  1989   
1989                  Master of Art i Missiologi fra Fuller Theological Seminary, Californien 
2000                  Ph.D. i Intercultural Studies, Fuller, Californien, USA   
1978 - 1981      Lecturer at Highschool in Esbjerg
1981 - 1991      Missionary employed by Sudan Mission for work with LCCN, Nigeria 
1991 - 1992      Youth and National secretary in Sudan Mission 
1992 - 1998      General Secretary in Sudan Mission 
1998 -               Consultant
1998 -               External lecturer at the Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen 
2000 - 2001      General Secretary, the Danish Mission Council 
2002 -               External lecturer at the Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen  

Teaching positions 
1974                 Teaching Assisntant, Institute of History, University of Aarhus 
1978 - 1981      Lecturer in history, religion and Greek-Roman studies at the highschool in Esbjerg
1982 - 1983      Lecturer in Christian Religious Knowledge at Sakato Secondary School,
                         Numan, Nigeria 
1983 - 1986     Lecturer in Christian Relitgious Studies at College of Education, Hong, Nigeria 
1986 - 1991     Undervisning i kirkeligt regi i Nigeria i tværkulturel mission 
1991 -              Guest lecturer in various teaching institutions, churches etc in Denmark and other  
                        parts of Euorpe and in Africa 
1998 -              Part time lecturer in missiology and interreligious issues at the faculty of theology,
                        University of Copenhagen
2002 -  2004    Part time lecturer in missiology at the faculty of theology,University of Åarhus

Other responsibilities
1992 - 1996    Member of the Danish Lausanne Committee 
1993 - 1998    Member of the board of the Danish Mission Council 
1993 - 1998    Founding member of the board of The Cross-culural Center in Copenhagen 
1995 - 1998    Sec. for European Liaison Committee, Project for Christian Muslim Relations in Africa 
1995 - 2003    Member of the steering committee for "Theological Communication"at the University
                       of Copenhagen 
1996 - 1998    Vice Chairman in the Committee for Mission in the Lutheran Church in Denmark 
1996 - 2004    Member of the Standing Committe: Joint Christian Ministry in West Africa 
1997                Delegate for The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark at the General Assembly of
                        the Lutheran World Federation in Hong Kong, China 
1999 - 2000    Member of and secretary for the Bishops- Committee for relations with Muslims 
2000 -             Member of the local church council, Tyrstrup Church, Christianfeld    
2002 - 2005    Chairman for the Committee of the Evangelical Lutheran Church for dialogue with other
2003 -             Chairman for the Study Committe of the Danish Mission Council
2004               Delegate for The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark at the General Assembly of
                        the Lutheran World Federation in Delegat in Winnipeg, Canada
2004 -             Advisor to the Council, Department for Mission and Development, Det Lutherske
2005 -             Editor for series of books on mission "Ny Mission" - Consultancymmjos.jpg is the name of a one-man company run by Mogens S. Mogensen. works for organisations, institutions and churches concerning intercultural and interreligious issues, in Denmark as well as abroad. For further informations on Mogens S. Mogensen, click here: - consultancy services offers help for a variety of tasks, including recruitment of leaders, supervisionof leaders and co-workers, vision and stretagy development and evaluations in organisations, institutions, a and courses and lectures and presentations concerning intercultural and interreligious issues.

News Archive

Danish Discussion on Revision of the Augsburg Confession
Okt. 10: The Council of International Relations of the Danish Lutheran Church has re-examined the article of the Augsburg Confession concerning Muslims. Read more.

Danish Declarations on Mission, Dialogue and Recognition of other Adherents of Other Relgions
May 13: The Interreligious Committee in the Danish Lutheran Church has issued a statement on "Mission and Dialogue". Read more. Following the Cartoon Crisis the Danish Mission Council has developed 12 theses on how religious groups in the multirelgious Danish society should relate to each other. Read more.

Danish Church Days a Resounding Success
"3,000 participants in Denmark’s most successful church festival to date. - Every third year since 1968 the Danish churches have held an ecumenical festival in one of the country’s 10 dioceses. The format has been similar but each time there has been a different focus, this year’s being Church Across Borders. From 17th to 20th May 3,000 people met in Haderslev in South Jutland to worship, discuss, sing, play, listen and buy at what many have called the best festival so far, writes the Danish Interchurch Council.. Read more. And read also.Mission in Second Life July 11
"World Gospel Mission" want to equip Christians for mission in the virtual world of Second Life, which now has about 8 mio "inhabitants".  "We look at that world and say, 'They need to be reached like anybody else in the world.' Behind the avatars that you find in Second Life, there are real people, and we know that they need to hear the Gospel like anybody else does", says Hubert Herriman Read more on this initiative, and download their Mission Handbook. 

Dialogue Conference in Abu Dhabi
As a follow-up on the cartoon crisis, the Tabah foundation in cooperation with the Danish Youth Council arranged a dialogue conference in Abu Dhabi. Read more.

Doctoral Dissertations on Mission since 1900
New database of missions-related dissertations published 1900 - 2003. Read more.

"Snow" - a Book on Tensions in Turkish Society - February 27
The Turkish Nobel Prize Winner, Orhan Pamuk has written a book worthwhile reading for those interested in Islam and the relations between Turkey and Europe. The book is not only an excellent novel which keeps its reader in its grip but it also presents a picture of the tensions in present day Turkey. In the book we follow the Turkish author Ka who returns to his home land after 12 years in Germany. Read the book, and read about the book here.

Cartoon Crisis - 10/02/06
Response from the Lutheran Church in Denmark to the cartoon crisis.
Read more.

Baptism and Change of Religion  - 10/08/05
Mogens S. Mogensen has published a book on "Baptism and Change of Religion" ("Dåb og religionsmøde", Kbh: Unitas forlag 2005). See presentation of the book in English. Read more. 

Fulbe Muslims Encounter Christ - book for sale
My dissertation has now been printed and is available for sale, either through the JCMWA coordinator for Nigeria, Mr. Hassan Ja'e Na'ungoo, Jos, Nigeria, or through me in Denmark. Fulbe Muslims Encounter Christ. Jos, Nigeria: Intercultural  Consultancy Services. 2002.

End of Split in Lutheran Church in Nigeria in View - 14/06/05
Ten year old conflict about to be resolved. Read more.

Diapraxis for Peace and Reconciliation - 06/06/05
In 1988 the Danish Lutheran theologian Lissi Rasmusen proposed the term diapraxis in relation to inter-faith dialogue. The Lutheran World Federation has now published a interesting material on diapraxis as a way to develop peace and bring about reconciliation between Christians and other religionists around the world.  Read more.  

A Church for the Fulanis - 05/07/05
"As the service got under way, I began to realise that this was going to be a challenge. Ibrahim didn’t understand either French or Mossi, and no-one was available to translate into Fulfulde. The singing, shouting, and dancing were all so alien to Ibrahim, for whom worship is a solemn affair. Drums for the Fulani are for either worldly celebrations, or “spirit festivals.”" So Keith, a missionary among Fulanis in Burkina Faso, writes in his article "Church in a Multicultural Society" (Dec. 2004). Read more.

Conference on the integrity of mission
In August the International Association of Misssion Studies (IAMS) held a conference in Malaysia on the integrity of mission. Read the paper presented by the well-known African scholar Tite Tiénou, , click here. In order to get an overview over all the papers of the conference, click on: IAMS conference.

Mission Conference in Athens - 26/05/26
May 9 - 16 the World Council of Churches held a World Conference on Mission and Evangelism in Athens, Greece, under the theme  "Come Holy Spirit, Heal and Reconcile". According to some of the participants, one of the best presentations was Robert Schreiter's  "Reconciliation as New Paradigm of Mission".
Read more

Missionary Periodicals Database - now available on-line - 20/09/04
The important work of compiling The Missionary Periodicals Database, which was begun in 1997, has now been completed. The database aims to record all periodicals on foreign missions published in Britain, between the eighteenth century and the 1960s, by missionary societies and commercial publishers, giving full bibliographical details, information on contents and locations.

Intensive course with prof. D. Guder on missional church in Copenhagen - 21/06/04
From the 16th to the 27th of August Darrell Guder will conduct a course at the Faculty of Theology of University of Copenhagen under the heading of "The Continuing Conversion of the Church". The course is an open university course so also people who are not university students may apply to participate in the course. The leader of the course is Mogens S. Mogensen. For more information, click here.

Notice new section under Fulanis in West Africa - 14/05/04
A new section on "Litteature on Fulanis and Fulani Mission" has just been opened. To access it directly, click her,

Art exhibition: Christ of the worlds 01/04/04
The mission of the Swedish Lutheran Church and the Swedish Church Council has arranged an art exhibitions with paintings of Christ from Africa, Latin America and Asia. The purpose of the exhibition is to show the cultural richness of Christianity and to further mutuality and exchange between churches in North and South. The exhibition raises the question: "Wich image of Christ does our culture and our church bring along and what does it stand for? With the help of images of Christ from our partners in the South we get an opportunity to work on our own image of Christ" . In order to see the 45 paintings by the 25 artitists, click here.

Commentary on religious Freedom under Islam - 17/01/04
The general secretary of "Dansk Europamission" (Danish Europe Mission) Henrik Ertner Rasmussen, in this article published on the website of Forum 18, various islamic perspectives and Muslim practices concerning religious freedom, including the right of conversion. In order to read the article, click here.

ICS web site statistics - 09/01/04
The web site has during last year (2003) had about 2500 visitors (hits). The users of the web site come from at least 25 different countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America and North America. The largest number of visitors came from Denmark (92,5 %), followed by Norway, US, UK, Sweden, Canada and Germany.

New book on theology and religions - 18/12/08
Prof. Viggo Mortensen, Faculty of Theology, University of Aarhus, has just published the anthology "Theology and the Religions. A dialogue" (Eerdmans 2003), which can be highly recommended for those who are involved in the church's dialogue with and mission among people of other faiths. The book contains interesting analyses of the development towards multireligiousity in the West and its implications for the study of religions and for Christian theology. Among the 37 contributors to the book of about 500 pages are Theordor Ahrens,  Jan-Martin berentsen, S. Mark Heim, Andrew Kirk, Ole Skjærbak Madsen and Lamin Sanneh. Mogens S. Mogensen contributes with a chapter on  "Conversion between Islam and Christianity". In order to read this article, click here. The book costs USD 35 a´nd will soon be available in tbe bookshops and in the Amazon internet bookshop.

JCMWA meeting in Parakou, Benin - Photo series - 15/12/03
The Joint Christian Ministry in West Africa (JCMWA) is a networking organisation for churches and mission societies involved in ministry among the Muslim Fulanis in West Africa. October 27 - November 1 JCMWA held its Standing Committee meeting in Parakou in Benin, and also visited a Fulani Bible Schools and a Fulani camp. To see photo series, click here.

LWF Inter-religious Study on Conflict and Peace between Christians and Muslims 13/12/03
The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) has initiated a study process on conflict and peace between Christians and Muslims with a special focus on Indonesia, Nigeria and Denmark. 22 - 27 October a team of Christian and Muslim scholars and leaders from Indonesia, Nigeria, USA and Denmark conducted their study in Denmark. See the report on the visit to Denmark. Click here.

Jonathan A. Romain, Guide for Those Considering Conversion - 01/10/03
The author of the book "Your God Shall Be My God. Religious Conversion in Britain Today" (2000) Jonathan Romain, who is a Jewish minister, has developed 10 very good points of advice for those who consider conversion. - You are also advised to visit the new section on conversion. Click the sub menud "Conversion" and chekc out the material on conversion there. More will be added soon.

Report on conference on theology of religions in Birmingham 09/08/03
June 24 25 Univrsity of Bimingham held a conference under the title  "To What Ultimate End? Interreligious Dialogue and the Future". Among the lecturers were world famous theologians of religions such as John Hick, Paul Knitter and Mark Heim. The report is available in two versions:  Report with photos  and Report - text only. has had 1200 visits in 6 months - 22/06/03
Since was reintroduced with new content and new lay-out structure on the 28th of December 2002 it has had about 1200 unique visits, i.e., about 200 per months. The visitors come from 21 different countries on 4 continents. Besides the vast mojority of visitors from Denmark, Norway, US and Sweden are the countries with most visitors.

Lutheran World Federation Mission Document - 20/06/06
The Lutheran World Federation is presently discussing a new Mission Document. To have a look at the text in its present form (June 2003), click here.

Joint Christian Ministry in West Africa (JCMWA) seeks new secretary - 01/05/03
The position as general secretary for JCMWA is presently being advertised. More informations can be obtained from Mogens S. Mogensen at Denne e-mail adresse bliver beskyttet mod spambots. Du skal have JavaScript aktiveret for at vise den..

Fulbe Muslims Encounter Christ - Book for sale -  29/3/03

My dissertation has now been printed and is available for sale, either through the JCMWA coordinator for Nigeria, Mr. Hassan Ja'e Na'ungoo, Jos, Nigeria, or through me in Denmark. Fulbe Muslims Encounter Christ. Contextual Communication of the Gospel to Pastoral Fulbe in Northern Nigeria. Jos, Nigeria: Intercultural  Consultancy Services. 2002.

On-line litterature on Missional Church

On-line litterature on missional church collected, screened and commented by Mogens S. Mogensen.

Billings, J. Todd, "What Makes a Church Missional" (2008)
Article in Christianity Today, May. Download.

Bliese, Richard, The Mission Matrix: Mapping Out the Complexities of a Missional Ecclesiology

Breen, Mike, "Why the Missional Movement Will Fail" (Blog post)
"The reason the missional movement may fail is because most people/communities in the Western church are pretty bad at making disciples. Without a plan for making disciples (and a plan that works), any missional thing you launch will be completely unsustainable." Download.

Cray, Graham, et. al., Mission Shaped Church (2004)

Church Planting and Fresh Expressions of Church in a Changing Context. Report from a working group of the Church of England's Mission and Public Affairs Council.

Croft,  Steven, "Ecclesiology for beginners"
Steven Croft, team leader of Fresh Expressions, reflects on what the nature of the church. 

Croft, Steven, "Exodus and Exile".
Artikel in Church of England Newpaper om, hvad vi kan lære fra exodus og exil ang. det at være kirke i dag.

Dietrich, Ingrace T.  & Dale A. Ziemer, "Take Time to Be Holy: Cultivating the Missional Church"
"... perhaps the most scarce commodity of all is time for attentive conversation and thoughtful refelction. ... Taking the time to be holy entails intentionally listening to God." For at læse hele artiklen, der også indeholder gode spørgsmål til brug i mindre grupper. Download.

Dietrich, Ingrace T. , "Which Story Will Shape the Church in the 21st Century"

Læs artiel om bibelstudiets rolle i den missionale kirke. Hvilken forskel vil det gøre, om det er historien om kejser Konstantin eller historien om Jesus Kristus, der former kirken? Download.

Dijkstra-Algra, Nynke & Janet van Dijk, "30 Promising Models for the Missionary Congregation" (Geloof-Hoop-Liefde 2009)
This booklet describes thirty promising missionary models for the congretation, developed by the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. Download.

Friends of Missional
God introduktionsartikel til missional-kirke tænkningen. Læs mere.

Guder, Darrell L., From Mission and Theology to Missional Theology
Guder's tiltrædelsesforelæsning som professor í Missional og Økumenisk Teologi ved Princeton Theological Seminary. December 4, 2002.

Guder, Darrell. L., "Mission in a Pluralist Society - Why and How?" (2006)

To foredrag holdt på den folkekirkelige missionskonference i Nyborg den 8. - 9. juni 2006 med en introduktion til missional kirke tænkningen. 
"Mission in a Pluralistic Society - Why?" Download
"Mission in a Pluralistic Society - How?" Download

Hammond, Kim, Characteristics of Missional Church
An interesting article which analyses characteristics of a missional church as opposed to traditional churches under the headings (traditional modern church versus postmodern missional church): Attract versus submerge, church buildings versus proxy spaces, Greek thinking versus Hebrew holistic thinking, the event versus the process, paid clergy versus empowered laity, autocratic versus relational leadership, modernism versus postmodernism, bounded set versus cenred set, dated versu ancient. Download.

Hegstad, Harald, "From Congregational Studies to Congregational Development. On the Different Modes of Ecclesiology" (2010)

Paper presented at conference in june 2010 in Utrecht. In the introduction Hegstad writes that, "There are not only a lot of ecclesiologies when it comes to content, but also when it comes to the understanding of what the field is all about. Ecclesiology is not only done within different "schools", but also in different "modes". When trying to clarify the different types of ecclesiological research and thinking, it is important to understand the relation between these different modes. This is not only a formal exercise; it raises questions on the understanding of theology, and of the relation between theology and other disciplines." Download.

Hjalmarson, Leonard, "Leading from the Margins"

Hunsberger, George,
Renewing Faith during the Postmodern Transition"
En artikel om hovedtanker i Lesslie Newbigins forfatterskab. Newbigin har været en af pionererne i missional kirke tænkningen.

Iversen, Hans Raun, "How can a Folk Church be Missional Church"
In Thormod Engelsviken & Thor Strandenæs, Mission to the World. Communicating the Gospel in the 21st Century. Essays in Honour of Knud Jørgensen.

Keller, Tim, The Missional Church

Lausanne movement, "The Local Church in Mission. Becomin a Missional Congregation..." (2005)
Dokumentet, som er et Lausanne Occasional Paper fra Pattaya konferencen i 2004, giver et bud på, hvad der karakteriserer en misssional menighed. "Missional congregations abandon a Constantinian model of church life ... build relationships ... address different cultures ... meet needs ... maintain a long term perspective etc." Dowload.

Mcllvaine III, Rodman W., "What is the missional church movement?" (Biblioteca Sacra 167, 2010)
"A missional church is a unified body of believers intent on being God’s missionary presence to the indigenous community that surrounds them, recognizing that God is already at work." Download.

Mogens S. Mogensen, "Missional Church"
Foredrag på nordisk konference om kirke og mission i Sigtuna 13. -15. marts 2005 om udviklingen frem mod missional kirke tænkningen og om dens relevans i en nordisk luthersk sammenhæng. Download.



167 (January–March 2010): 89–106
167 (January–March 2010): 89–106

Murphy, Nancy, "Equipping Church Leaders to Deal with Post-Modern Diversity"  
Nancey Murphy, professor på Fuller Theological Seminary, identificerer i en helt ny artikel vigtige aspekter ved postmoderniteten og peger på de udfordringer, som de stiller kirken overfor. "First, if we are entering a new period in history, we should think of these issues not as some-thing to be resolved immediately, but should expect them to be the intellectual business of the next few centuries. I have highlighted a few philosophical insights that may be of help; it remains to be seen what further resources the Post-modern Period will offer to the church. A second thing to keep in mind is that the Post-modern Period itself is only now in the making, and Christians should not wait passively to see how it will develop, but ought to seize the opportunity to contribute to its direction."

News from
En længere samling af nyhedsartikler (1997-2001) fra menigheder og stifter i den anglikanske kirke, engageret i missional kirke initiativer i Storbrittanien. Download.

Roxborogh, John, "Is "mission" our only mission? Revisiting the Missionary Nature of the Chuch"
Læs en udfordrende kommentar til missional-kirke debatten, hvor liturgi/tilbedelse og fællesskab og mission sidestilles som kirkens grundlæggende væsen. Download.

Alan Roxburgh, "The Missional Church".

Roxburgh, Alan, "What Is 'Missional Church'"?
In this introductory article, Roxburgh elaborates on the following characteristics and meanings of missional church: "Western society as mission field", "Mission is about the Missio Dei", and "Missional Church is about the church being a contrast society". Download.

Alan Roxburgh, "Traditional vs. the Emergent Church"
Alan Roxburgh, som var med til at skrive bogen "Missional Church" har skrevet en meget inspirerende artikel "Traditional vs. the Emergent Church: Struggling with STructure and Looking for New Forms" (2004), hvor han analyserer de vigtigste strukturer (som også præger kirken) i traditionelle præmoderne samfund, tidlige moderne samfund og sen-morderne samfund. Roxburgh går ind i en spændende diskussion med ledere fra "the emergent church" og deres anti-institutionelle holdning til det at være kristen.

Roxburgh, Alan J. , "The Contours of Ministry in a Post-modern Age" (2006)
Roxburgh skriver i konklusionen på sin artikel: "The contours of ministry in the liminal context of a changing Western society is one within which it is still not possible to discern or predict what might emerge down the road. In this situation the most generative directions are toward the creation of learning communities with the capacity to meet in a new commons; the forms of church life need to be shaped around the formation of communities of practice and ministry training needs to be located in the midst of those communities of practice."

The Church of England, "Guidelines for the Identification, Training and Deployment of Ordained Pioneer Missionaries (2005)
Dette dokument er en opfølgning på en af anbefalingerne fra rapporten "Mission-shaped Church", nml. behovet for udvælgelse, træning og udsendelse af missionærer til plantning af "fresh expresseions of the church" i nye kontekster i den anglikanske kirke i England.  Download.

Van Rheenen, Gailyn, "Contrasting Missional and Church Growth Perspectives"
Van Rhenen skriver i sin konklusion på en sammenligning af missional kirke og kirkevækst perspektiver, at ""The Church Growth model is inadequate. By beginning with anthropology rather than theology and segmenting tehology and practicew, Church Growth advocates assume that their model reflects the nature of God. In odther words, church growth determines effective practice and then seeks to validate this practice byt the use of Scripture." Download.



Journal of Missional Practice

Journal of Missional Practice (JMP), som udgives af  The Missional Network (TMN), er nu tilgængelig gratis online. TMN er et netværk af teologer, missiologer mv., engageret i missional teologi og missional praksis. Blandt medlemmerne er initiativtageren John Roxburgh, Craig Van Gelder, Mark Lau Branson og Martin Robinson. "The Journal shapes and participates in a focused conversation centred on the convictions of TMN. It is practice driven; however, the conversation is based on deepening theological foundations. It invites contributions from academics and practitioners and encourages interaction between these communities. This learning community will be shaped by practitioners, students and academics in a renewed engagement between gospel and culture sharing stories, experiments, scholarship and questions". Download

On-line literature on mission in English

On-line books and articles collected, screened and commented by Mogens S. Mogensen.

Allen, Roland,  The Sponaneous Expansionof the Church (1927)
A classic in missiology. Download.

Fischer-Nielsen, Peter, "Online Mission"
Peter Fischer-Nielsen skriver i Lausanne World Pulse om mission på nettet. "My goal here is both to encourage churches to a more focused use of the Internet and point to some of the possible pitfalls that exist when churches go online. My approach to the Internet is very pragmatic: it is there, it is important for our communication today, and most likely it has come to stay. Therefore, it is not fruitful to discuss whether we should use the Internet or not. Instead, we should focus our energy on how to use it in the best way possible." Læs mere.

Hansen, Flemming   "Mission, Church and Tradition in Context" - summary
A 5 page-summary of the PhD dissertation by Flemming Hansen. A pioneer work presenting an emic understanding of the encounter between Lutheran Christianity and traditional African religion in Tanzania. Download.

Mission and Postmodernities. Swedish Missiological Themes. Vol 95 No. 4. 2007
Papers presented at a NIME confernce in Turku/Åbo, Finland in August 2007. Download.

Mortensen, Viggo, ed., "The Role of Mission in the Future of Lutheran Missiology" (2003)
Papers presented at a preconference in connection with conference on the future of Lutheran theology in Aarhus University January 2003. Contains among others papers by Eduard H. Schroeder, Philip Baker, Johannes Nissen and Viggo Mortensen. Download.

Oxbrow, Mark, Mission and Mission Cooperation in the "Next Christendom" Era
A powerpoint presentation by the international director of CMS, England, presented at a seminar of the Danish Mission Council, November 14, 2007. Discusses possible roles of traditional Western mission societies in relating to churches in the global South.  Watch powerpoint presentation.

Søltoft, Pia, "Søren Kierkegaard on Mission in Christendom" (2007)
Article in Swedish Missiological Themes Vol. 95. No. 4 pp. 395-404. Download.

Todd M. Johnson, Todd M,  "Contextualization: A New-Old Idea"
On the basis of de Nobili's mission work in India in the 175h century Johnson in this article in "Frontiers" discusses issues of contextualization. Download.

Theology - News and Notes - Theology of Religions (2005)
This issue off News and Notes from Fuller Theological Seminary contain articles about the theologies of religion of Barths, Pannenberg a.o. Read articles by Jacques Matthey, WCC, Veli Matti Kärkäinen, Fuller, Kirsteen Kim, Selly Oak Colleges etc.  Download.

Thompson, T. Jack, "Capturing the Image: African Missionary Photography as Enslavement and Liberation (2007)
"African missionary photography operated in the borderlands between idea and reality, between enslavement and liberation. Precisely where that border runs remains a matter for ongoing discussion". The article contains a number of historical photos that are analysed in view of enslavement and liberation.Download.

Wickeri, Philip L, "Mission from the Margins. the Missio Dei in the Crisis of World Christianity".  (2004)
"Mission from the margins suggests that the cutting edge for mission today and throughyout the history of the Christian churches comes from movements emerging outside established Christian centres ... The "missio Dei" needs to be reshaped in the encounter of historic churches in the North with these movements in the South. this will heop Christians resist the forces of globalization and empire, and to respond anew to the gospel message of today". Download.



Encounters Mission Journal
Encounters Mission Journal is an online, topical mission journal published four times a year by Redcliffe College. The purpose of Encounters is to stimulate and resource the mission community and provide a space for those involved in the thinking and practice of mission to express and exchange their views on a variety of issues. Download.

Collections of On-line articles and books:

Lausanne Documents
This website gives you access to the Primary Lausanne Documents, the Lausanne Occasional Papers and Other Lausanne Documents, all in all more than 50 online mission documents. Read more.

"Researching World Christianity - Doctoral Dissertations on Mission since 1900"
This database incorporates compilations of missions-related dissertations published in the July 1983, July 1993, and July 2003 issues of the International Bulletin of Missionary Research, and has been expanded in its scope. Read more.

On-line Litterature on Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations

Collected, screened and commented by Mogens S. Mogensen.

A Common Word between Us and You
At the endi of the Ramadan on the 13th of October 2007 138 Muslim leaders and scholars from all over the world sent a letter to the Pope and the leaders of all other churches calling for dialogue and peace.  Read more

A Guide to Etiquette for Meetings between Christians and Muslims
Christian Muslim Forum in England has developed a practical guideline on how Christians and Muslims may meet and establish positive relations.Read more.

Archbishop of Canterbury's Listening Initiative in Christian-Muslim Relations 2001-2004
The report is the result of nearly three years work, where a group of Christians and Muslims have met with over 500 poeple, Christians and Muslims, all over England. As a result of this final report, presented in 2004, a Christian Muslim Forum was set up. Download

Beyond Multiculturalism vs. Assimilation
UA survey of the attitudes of Muslims in London to the English society, to terrorism etc. compared to those of other citizens in London.Read a short summary here. Read the whole text here.

Bonde, Bent Nørby, "How 12 Cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed were Brought to Trigger an International Conflict" (2007)
The article analyses why the religious protests in Denmark generated the astonishing international reactions and concludes that a very hostile rhetoric against Muslims in Denmark and montaining international tensions were important pre-disposing causes for the conflict. The articles also points to several options to de-escalate the coflict which were not used by the government. Finally, it suggests lessons to be learned in similar cross-cultural crises in Europe. Download.

Buijs, Frank J. & Jan Rath, "Muslims in Europe: The State of Research".
The article brings together very useful information (from 2002) on the facts and figures of Muslims in Europa, the development of scientific research on Muslims in Europe. It looks at Islam as a religion and the interactions between Muslims and non-Muslims. I concludes with a very long bibliography. Download

Christensen, Jens, Mission to Islam and beyong - A Practical Theology of Mission to Islam and beyond
Jens Christensen, who was a Danish-American missionary among Muslims in Pakistan, wrote in 1977 the book "A Practical Approach to Islam" (in 1989 punlished in Danish with the title "Konfrontation - kristendom og islam"). In 2001 the book was republished under the title "Mission to Islam and beyond -  A Practical Theology of Mission". Download.        

Elthawy, Mona, Vi må kræve sharia tilbage- We have to reclaim Sharia
Article in English - but with a Danish heading. It is impossible to talk about Sharia as one specific divine law. There are many different interpretation of it. Read more.

Gilchrist, John, "A Christian Witness to the Muslim"(1988)

'Islam and the West': Annual report on the state of dialogue' (2008)

Islamica Magazine

Kern, Soeren, "Islam: Fastest-Growing Religion in Britain" (Dec. 18, 2012)
The latest  data from Britain's 2011 Census was released on December 11. "The census data shows that the number of Christians in England and Wales declined by 11% (4.1 million) during the past decade, from 37.3 million in 2001 to 33.2 million in 2011. During the same period, the Muslim population in England and Wales increased by 80% (1.2 million), from 1.5 million in 2001 to 2.7 million in 2011, making it the second-largest religion in Britain. The third-largest religion in England and Wales is Hinduism (817,000), followed by Sikhism (423,000), Buddhism (248,000) and Judaism (263,000). As a proportion of the population as a whole (56.07 million people were counted in the census), the number of those describing themselves as Christian has dropped from 72% in 2001 to 59% in 2011. The number of Muslims has increased from 3% to 5% over a decade." Download.

"Klarheit und Gute Nachbarshaft. Christen und Muslime in Deutschland" (2006)

The evangelical church in Germany (EKD) has published a new guideline for the congregations (in GErman!) on the relationship between Christianity and Islam, and between Christians and Muslims. Download.

Lausanne, Understanding Muslims (2005)
This document, which is a Lausanne Occasional Paper based on a conference in Pattaya in October 2004 discusses the current context for mission among Mulsims in various parts of the world. Download.

Loving God and Neighbor Together: A Christian Response to A Common Word Between Us and You
Respons fra fire teologiske professorer fra Yale University. Læs mere.

Living in the Shadow of 9/11 and the Light of the Gospel (2002)

LWF, Diapraxis for Peace and Reconciliation
The Lutheran World Federation has issued an interesting material on "Diapraxis for Peace and Reconciliation", with perspectives from all continents on the rlations between Christianity, Islam and other religions. Read more.

LWF Inter-religious Study on Conflict and Peace between Christians and Muslims
The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) has initiated a study process on conflict and peace between Christians and Muslims with a special focus on Indonesia, Nigeria and Denmark. See the report on the visit to Denmark. Click here.

Mandaville, Peter, "Reimagining Islam in Diaspora. The Politics of Mediated Community"  (2001)
Today more than 40% of todays Muslims live in minority situations. This article explores the impact of information and communication technologies on the debates relating to the normative boundaries of  Islamic community and identity in diaspora.

Meeting Muslims?
Study paper prepared by the "Islam in Europe" committee, Council of European Bishops Conference, Conference on European Churches in 2003. Contains among other things a section on "Stages for Encounter and Dialogue" and a section on "Formation of Christians".

Mehdi Mozaffari, Mehdi, "Clarification of the Terms of "Islam", "Islamism" and "Islamophobia" (2009)
Paper presented at Hearing on Islam, Islamism and Islamophobia in Europe, Copenhagen, Tuesday, 8 September 2009, Council of Europe: Folketinget, “Landstinget”. Download

Muslim Growth in the United Kingdom and Worldwide

På verdensplan vokser antallet af muslimer med 1,9 % og antallet af kristne med 1,3 %. I dag er der 1,3 mia muslimer og 2,2 mia kristne. Artikel af Peter Brierly om udviklingstendenser i islam sammenlignet med kristendommen. Download.

Møller, Bjørn "Religion and Conflict in Africa. With a Special Focus on East Africa" (2006)
The report, which is published by tje Danish Institute for International Studies, analyses athe relations between conflict and religion in Africa. Christianity, Islam and tradtional religion may all play a role in armed conflicts but there is no reason to expect a clash of civilisations. Download.

Norsk Misjonsselskap (1994)
Policydokument om muslimmisjon. Download.

Open Letter to His Holiness Pope Benedict XV1 (2006)
An open letter from 38 Muslim leaders and scholars from all over the world in response to the statements by the pope in Regensburg about Islam and violence. Download

Petch, Roger, "Jeremy Hinds: Teacher and Apologist to Christians and Muslims" (TCNN Research Bulletin 2007 No. 47. Pp. 4-15).

Racius, Egdunas, "The Multiple Nature of Islamic Da'wa
This dissertation from the Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki, 2004, gives a thorough analysis of the term and the sources of da'wa, the theological and practical considerations of da'wa, and oth extra-ummic (missionary) and intra-ummic (renewal, revival) da'wa.

Rasmussen, Lissi, "From Dialogue to Diapraxis. Christian Muslim Relations" (1988)
In "Dialogue in Action - in honour of Johannes Aagaard." eds. Lars Thunberg, Moti Lal Pandit, Carl Vilh.Fogh-Hansen New Delhi 1988.It was Lissi Rasmussen who first developed the concept of diapraxis, in this article she explains the reasons for the development of this concept. Download.

Rasmussen, Lissi, "Us vs Them syndrome in Christian-Muslim conflicts. Denmark, Indonesia and Nigeria" (2007)Paper for the conference Religion in the 21st century, Copenhagen, September 2007. Dr. Rasmussen concludes on a LWF study about Christian-Muslim relationbs in  in which she was involved in Denmark, Indonesia and Nigeria, concerning the us vs. them syndrome. Download.

Siddiqi, Atuallah, The Changing Perception of Islam (2005)
I denne artikel fra "Interreligious Insight" (October 2005) præsenterer Atuallh Siddiqi, Senior Research Fellow ved Islamic Foundation, Leicester og direktør for Markfield Institute of Higher Education, nogle af de vigtigste teologiske emner for kristne i relation til islamisk trog og praksis.Klik her.

The Amman Message (2004)
A statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan. Download.

Windows for Understanding. Jewish - Muslim - Lutheran Relations
A rich resource for greater understaning about Jews, Muslims and Lutherans prepared by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on the premise that "If we can open a window for understanding then such opprtunities will create healthier and deeper perspectives for the present and future of Jewish, Muslim, and Lutheran relations". Download

Volf, Miroslav, "What's in a name? Christians, Muslims and the worship of the One God". ABC Religion and Ethics, October 19, 2013
Referring to the conflict in Malaysia about the use of the word Allah for the Christian God, Miroslav Volf summarises his arguments about Allah and the Christian God from his book Allah. A Christian Response (San Francisco: HarperOne, 2011). Download.


Articles by Mogens S. Mogensen:

"Tolerance and the New Pluralism. Towards a Post-secular Society with Religions in the Public Square."
Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april 2006. Download.

"The Role of Media in Portraying Events. Legal, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on Media and Communication."
Paper præsenteret på "Muslim Danish Dialogue Forum, The Search for Mutual Understanding" i Abu Dhabi  14. - 17. april 2006. Download.

"Conversion between Islam and Christianity in a Danish Context" (2003)
Article in Theology and the Religions, Viggo Mortensen, ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Pp. 287-317. Download.

"Continuity and Discontinuity between Islam and Christianity in Mission to Muslims" 
When Christians and Muslims meet, and when Christians endeavour to communicate the gospel to Muslims the question of continuity and discontinuity between Islam and Christianity comes up. This issue is discussed on the basis on research on the encounter of Muslim Fulanis in Nigeria with the gospel. Paper presented at conference in Copenhagen. Download.

If stones could talk
This paper, presented at course at Caspari Center in Jerusalem, presents issues of dialogue between Islam and Christianity set in the context of Jerusalem. Download.


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