religion_and_developmentReligion og udvikling

Hvordan er sammenhængen mellem religion og udvikling, og helt specielt mellem kristen mission og udvikling? Er religion hæmmende eller fremmende for social udvikling? Hvilken rolle kan religiøse organisationer, inklusive missionsselskaber, spille i udvikling? Kan statens udviklingshjælp kanaliseres gennem religiøse organisationer uden at udviklingshjælpen komprommitteres? Det er nogle af de spørgsmål, som vil blive behandlet på denne side.                                                                                                                                                 

On-line litteratur

 
Africa Interfaith Initiative on the Post 2015 Development Agenda. Africa Faith Leaders' Summit, Kampala, Uganda, (July 2014). StatementPositionpaper.

Alamdari, Kazem, "Religion and Development Revisited: Comparing Christianity and Islam" (2008)
"To explain the level of difference between Muslim societies and the West, many refer to religious sources as if Christianity caused modern development; and Islam all present misfortunes. This paper challenges this common view of religious determinism arguing that rather than Christianity or Islam per se, it is the variation in social, historical, and ecological conditions that led to the persistence of integration of religion and state hence underdevelopment in many Muslim countries. Neither the realm of Islam was always behind nor was the land of Christianity always at the forefront." Download

Alkire, Sabine, "Religion and development" (2004)
Draft not to be quotede, prepared for: The Elgar Companion to Development Economics
David A. Clark, editor, October 2004 Download.

Dwarswaard, Esther, Proselytism and Conversion Zeal (Paper July 2010)
"Proselytism confronts Western development workers in various ways. They may be confronted with national and international missionary activities from mostly Christian and Islamic organisations. In those cases, power plays an important role in these activities: not only in a financial way, but also psychologically. Especially in non-stable multi-religious settings these missionary activities may contribute to increasing conflicts between (religious/ethnic) groups. On the other hand, Western development workers from Faith Based Organisations may be falsely accused of converting the people they work for. In order to prevent these accusations, religious development organisations should either conceal their religious inspiration, or be completely open about it, depending on the circumstances they work in. If they choose an open attitude, it may help to use and internalize ethical guidelines." Download.

Ellis, Stephen & Gerie ter Haar, "Religion and Development. A New Perspective on Africa" . Harvard International Review, May 2007.
The authors conclude that "If development were to be based on long-term partnerships with a strong social component, it would have implications not only for Africa, but also for the donors themselves. This is because most governments and international institutions are secular bodies that respect a formal separation between the spheres of religion and politics. These very institutions will need to think hard about how to incorporate religion into their strategies, without compromising their own secular identity. Harnessing religion to development is desirable, but it is bound to affect the nature of the relationship between donors and recipients of aid." Download.

Føsker, Jørn Stian R.,"Religion i norsk bistandspolitikk - et tegn i tiden? (2012)
Masteropgave på Menighetsfakultetet i Oslo. Download.

Jørgensen, Jonas Adelin, "Bistandskroner og mission. Tingene holdes adskilt" Artikel i Kristeligt Dagblad 5. aug. 2010

Artiklen responderer på kritik af påstået sammenblanding af mission og udvikling. Download.

Khanna, Chander, "The Hindu Perspective" (Lecture, October 2007)
"Dr. Khanna has selected 4 areas where the Hindu faith provides an insight into the causes of extreme poverty and offers practical solutions from the spiritual perspective". Download.

Khan, Habibullah & Omar K. M. R. Bashar, "Religion and Development: Are They Complementary? With the Reference to the Case of Iran" (2008)
"Given that religion drives people’s behavior and actions in a more productive direction, it is not possible to separate religion from development. After a meticulous review of theory and empirical literature, the paper concludes that the relationship between religion and development is likely to be complementary as long as religious beliefs and practices promote ‘moderation’ rather than ‘extremes’. A peaceful co-existence of various religious groups (or sects) within a country and nations with multiple religious affiliations within the global community at large remains the essential prerequisite for growth and prosperity in today’s highly interconnected world, argued in the paper." Download.

Khanna, Chander: The Hindu Perspective. Lecture, October 2007.
Download.

Mogensen, Mogens S. (red.), Religion og udviking. Ny Mission nr. 22. Frederiksberg: Dansk Missionsråd (2012).
Download.

Mtata, Kenneth, Religion: Help or Hindrance to Development? Edited by Kenneth Mtata. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig. LWF Documentation 58/2013. Download.

Mulia, Siti Musdah, "The Muslim Perspective" (Lecture October 2007)
"Dr. Mulia tries to disclose various experiences and work in the field of education and advocacy that she has been engaged in so far in democracy and community development". Download.

Mumford, Rachel, Religion and International Development. Interview with Katherine Marshall, Director, Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics, The World Bank, March 2006
The Pew Forum interviewed Katherine Marshall following a roundtable on religion and international development co-sponsored by the Forum and the Council on Foreign Relations. Ms. Marshall is the director of the Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics at the World Bank and a former country director in the World Bank's Africa and East Asia regions. She discussed the role of faith organizations and interfaith dialogue in development policy-making, particularly with respect to HIV/AIDS, health, food security and poverty alleviation, as well as responses to religion within the development community. Download.

Mwaura, Philomena, "The Christian Perspective" (Lecture, October 2007)
Dr. Mwaura explores the concept of development in Christianity focusing on how the new expressions of Christianity in Africa perceive development and the activities they engage in to achieve it". Download.

Norheim, Astrid Dalehaug, "Norge skalhjelpe verdens forfulgte kristne". Vort land, 4. september 2012
Forfulgte religiøse minoriteter vil få en langt større oppmerksomhet i Utenriksdepartementet (UD) fremover gjennom utenriksministerens nye minoritetsprosjekt. Download.

Norsk Misjons Bistandsnemda, "Religion er viktig for utvikling" (2010)
Bistandsnævnet skriver bl.a., at "Vi er fullstendig klar over at ikke all religiøs praksis er god, og at tro kan misbrukes også i utviklingsarbeidet. Religiøse forestillinger kan brukes til å undertrykke mennesker, ikke minst annerledes troende. En katolsk prest sa engang: "We have to remember that there is good religion,there is bad religion and there is really bad religion". Religion representerer en kraft som gir mening og motivasjon. Men religion, som politikk, filosofi og nasjonalisme kan føre på avveier. Allikevel er det vår erfaring at i kampen for en mer rettferdig fordeling og en bedre fremtid for verdens mange fattige og undertrykte, ser vi at religiøs livsforankring og livsfortolkning som oftest er en god alliansepartner." Nævnet konkluderer med at opfordre udviklingsministeren til "å nedsette engruppe som kan arbeide med disse spørsmålene, og presentere en rapport som kan danne grunnlag for viktige samtaler om religionens plass i utviklingsarbeid og i den norske offentligheten."
Download.

Petersen, Marie Juul og Catrine Christiansen, "Religiøse organisationer vinder frem" i Politiken 2. oktober 2010
Indtil for få år siden blev religiøse organisationer ignoreret af forskere og praktikere inden for udviklingsbistand, selvom de har været nogle af de mest aktive, når det gælder om bistand til verdens fattigste. "Sådan er det ikke længere. I dag bliver religiøse organisationer i stadig stigende grad set som relevante aktører i udviklingsbistand", skriver forfatterne, der samtidig peger på en række gode grunde til at se nærmere på religiøse organisationers rolle i dansk udviklingsbistand ogpå en række problemstillinger og udfordring i forholdet mellem mission og bistand .Download.

Religion and Development Post 2015
Download.

Religion and Development. Practioners Guide
This book is a practitioners' guide centring on practical experiences of development professionals, supplemented by theoretical considerations. It is the result of the knowledge, experience and insight that the Knowledge Centre Religion and Development has gained since its establishment in 2006. Download.

Sellinger, Leah, "The Forgotten Factore: The Uneasy Relationship between Religion and Development". Social Compass 2004.
"Religion has been ignored and sidelined in international development theory and strategy, supported by the discourse of social theory during the development era. The dominance of modernization and secularization theories has been key to this marginalization, but if, as recently asserted, we are to recognize the impact and influence of culture on development strategy, we must account for the specific role of religion in this. This article argues that religion is a defining force within culture, and asks if in a postmodern era, where religion seems to be impacting on all areas of society, religion can be addressed; and if so, how this should be managed. By exploring the roots of development and its historical avoidance of religion, the article seeks to determine a course of action that encourages the social significance of religion to be recognized and handled in a constructive manner." Download.

Solheim, Erik, "Ta Gud alvorlig". Kronik i Aftenposten 12. aug. 2010
Miljø- og udviklingsminiser Erik Solheim skriver i sin konklusion på kronikken, at "Eksemplene er mange - fra alle kontinenter. Det de har felles er å understøtte at religion er mye viktigere enn mange i Norge tror. Kanskje er Norge verdens mest verdsliggjorte samfunn. Desto viktigere er det at vi gjør en større innsats for å forstå. Derfor vil vi ta Gud alvorlig i utviklingspolitikken." Download.

Storaker, Kristin, "Religion - et spørgsmål om utvikling?"
Download.

Temamøde om religion og udvikling, Gellerup Kirke 11. april 2011
Oplæg ved Knud Vilby, Abdul Wahid Pedersen og Uffe Torm. Respons fra Betty Thøgersen, Jakob Egeris Thorsen og Dorthe Johansen.  Download.

Tomalin, Emma, Sociology, Religion, and Development. Literature Review (2007).
Download.

Torm, Uffe, "Behovene bestemmer. Religion er ikke et kriterium for nødhjælp". Artikel i Kristeligt Dagblad, den 28. august.
Download.

van Ham, Jack, "Religion and development cooperation: a devil of a job?" (2010) (Speech at New Year's meeting ICCO and Kerk in Actie, 2010)
"... I see it as an essential part of our mission as a professional development organisation that we can engage with religion, be it good or bad. And that we are then able to determine who we may or may not work with. This demands an attitude of religious empathy on our part, or, to use that eloquent English phrase: faith literacy. Knowledge and understanding of the values, language, motivations and culture of religious communities.Really connecting and collaborating effectively therefore demands an effort from all parties involved. Even though this may prove "a devil of a job". Because I believe that we can only bring about that better world that we all want by working together. And because I believe that we truly have something to say to one another." Read more.

van Meerkerk, Merel & Brenda Bartelink Religious actors in development: Time to fix our blind spot (2015)
Download.

 

 

On-line artikler m.m. af Mogens S. Mogensen

2007  Diakoni og udvikling i kirke og mission. Ny Mission nr. 12. Frederiksberg: Unitas forlag. Rigereret af Mogens S. Mogensen.
Download.

2008    "Kirkerne i mission og udvikling: Kan religion være fremmende for udvikling".
I Lene Sjørup, red., Udviklingsteologi. Den tredje Verden og teologi i dag. Odense: Syddansk
Universitetsforlag.  Download.

2012   Religion og udviking. Ny Mission nr. 22. Redigeret af Mogens S. Mogensen. Frederiksberg: Dansk Missionsråd.
"Religion har alt for længe været elefanten i rummet, som alle kun se, høre, lugte og støde sig på - men som ingen talte om. Det var først, da Verdensbanken i 1990'erne tog spørgsmålet om religions rolle for udviklingsarbejdet seriøst op, at der for alvor kom gang i debatten om religion og udvikling," skriver Dansk Missionsråds Udviklingsafdelings netop afgåede leder Uffe Torm i bogens hovedartikel. En lang række danske og internationale forskere og praktikere belyser de problemstillinger, som koblingen mellem religion og udvikling rejser, og giver eksempler på, hvordan samspillet i praksis foregår. Download.

2012 "Religion er uomgængeligt i udviklingsarbejde". Religion. dk, den 12. april.
Download.

 

Off-line litteratur

Christiansen, Catrine,
(PhD dissertation)

Haynes, Jeff (ed.), Religion and Development: Conflict or Cooperation? (Palgrave Macmillan 2007)
"Jeffrey Haynes adopts a chronological and conceptual approach to introduce undergraduate and postgraduate students to the central themes and theoretical perspectives in the study of religion and development in the developing world. He examines the emergence and consolidation of theories of development and explains how and why development outcomes in the developing world are often influenced by religion. Focusing on key themes including environmental sustainability, health and education, this book is an essential guide showing how religion influences current development practice." Read more.

Marshall, Katherine & Marisa Bronwyn Van Saanen, (ed.), Development and faith: where mind, heart, and soul work together (World Bank Publications 2007)
"Development and Faith' explores and highlights promising partnerships in the world between secular and faith development entities. It recounts the evolving history of relationships between faith and secular development institutions. It focuses on the Millennium Development Goals as a common framework for action and an opportunity for new forms of collaboration and partnership." Read more.

Karam, Azza (ed.), Religion, Development, and the United Nations. (Social Science Research, 2012) "In 2011, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the Interfaith Center of New York (ICNY) convened a series of consultations that brought together representatives of various agencies of the United Nations, leaders of faith-based non-governmental organizations, and academic researchers working in a number of different disciplines. Each of these gatherings sought to open a space for reflection and critical dialogue on religion, peacebuilding, development, gender, and a range of related issues. This SSRC report summarizes the key questions the consultations were designed to address, the central outcomes of these exploratory discussions, and select recommendations for those working in the field."

ter Haar, Gerrie (ed.),  Religion and Development: Ways of Transforming the World (2011)
"The book ... looks at the ways in which a religious worldview influences processes of development. Its great originality is that it does not concentrate primarily on religious institutions and organisations but on religious ideas themselves. In the final analysis, it is people's ideas that motivate them. Their worldview stimulates them to act in specific ways." Read more.

 

Links

Dansk Missionsråds Udviklingsafdeling.
Besøg.

Seminarrække om mission og udvikling - DMR-U
Download.

Religion and Development Knowledge Centre
Dutch Centre that seeks to put into practice the vision that religion is an important factor for sustainable development, international co-operation and civil society building. To reach that aim, the Knowledge Centre makes products and services available to development organisations and their partner-organisations, migrant organisations, academic institutes, media and political organisations. Visit.

Religion and Development Research Program
"An international research partnership exploring the relationships between several major world religions, development in low-income countries and poverty reduction. It focuses on four countries (India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Tanzania), enabling the research team to study most of the major world religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and African traditional belief systems.Based at the University of Birmingham, England, the programme works with researchers in other UK institutions and the focus countries." Visit.

Religion and Development Research Programme
University of Birmingham, UK

Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs

Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA

The Yale forum on Religion and Ecology

Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics, World Bank

 

 

 

 


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