Apostasi i islamapostasybook.jpg

Indholdsfortegnelse

1. Indledning og 
synspunkter
2. Apostasi i koranen
3. Apostasi i hadith
4. Muslimske tolkninger
af apostasi
5. Ikke-muslimske 
synspunkter på apostasi
6. Apostater - eks-muslimer
7. Apostasi-cases

1. Indledning og synspunkter

I den klassiske/ortodokse islam ses der med stor alvor på frafald, apostasi (ridda). For den, der forlader islam, apostaten (murtadd), er der ifl. Koranen kun tale om Guds straf på dommedag, mens der i sunnaen, den autoritative overlevering om profteten Muhammeds ord og gerninger, foreskrives en alvorlig straf for frafaldne. Ifl. gængse fortolkninger (alle klassiske udgaver af shari'a lovginingen) er der dødsstraf for mænd og livsvaring indespærring for kvinder, der begår apostasi. Der gives dog mulighed for at undgå straffen, ved at vende tilbage til islam. Moderne liberale fortolkere af islam, som fx. den danske konvertit Aminah Tønnsen, lægger hovedvægten på de udsagn i koranen, der fastslår, at der ikke kan være tvang i religion (Sura 2,257) og afviser dermed straffen for apostasi. I dag er der dødsstraf for apostasi i flg. lande: of Saudi Arabien, Yemen, Iran, Sudan, Afghanistan, Mauritanien og Comoroerne.

Synspunkter på apostasi i islam v. Mogens S. Mogensen

2. Apostasi i Koranen

Apostasi, frafald fra islam er omtalt i flg. surer i Koranen:
Al-Baqarah 2: 217,
Al-Baqarah 2: 108,
A’l Imra’n 3: 90
Al-Nisa’ 4: 137
Al-Nahl 16: 106


3. Apostasi i Hadith

Bukhari: "Whoever changes his religion, execute him.” (findes også i de andre autentiske hadith-samlinger).
Bukhari og Muslim: “It is not permissible to shed the blood of a person who bears witness that there is no god but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah except in three cases: a life for a life, a previously-married person who commits adultery, and one who leaves Islam and forsakes the jamaa’ah.”
Bukhari: "The Prophet appointed and sent him (Abu Musa) as governor of Yemen. Then later he sent Muadh ibn Jabal as his assistant. When Muadh arrived there, he announced: People, I am sent by the Messenger of God for you. Abu Musa placed a cushion for him to be comfortably seated. Meanwhile a person was presented who previously had been a Jew, then was a Muslim and then became a Jew. Muadh said: I will not sit unless this person is executed. This is the judgement of God and His Messenger. Muadh repeated the statement three times. Finally, when he was killed, Muadh sat".
Muslim: Aisha reports:The Messenger of God stated that it is unlawful to shed the blood of a Muslim other than for the following reasons: a. although married, he commits adultery or b. after being a Muslim he chooses kufr, or c. he takes someone's life.


4. Muslimske tolkninger af apostasi:

Apostasy. What Does Islamic Scholarship Say?
Læs, hvad en række klassiske og moderne islamiske lærde siger om apostasi. Bl.a. Malik, Bukhari, Muslim, Dawud og Doi. Læs mere.

Abul Ala Mawdudi, "The Punishment of the Apostate according to Islamic Law"
Mawdudi er en af de mest inflydelsesrige muslimske lærde i nyere tid. Hans bog udkom i 1963, og er her oversat til engelsk og udgivet af en gruppe kristne for at gøre opmærksom på det klassiske islamiske syn på frafald fra islam. "To everyone acquainted with Islamic law it is no secret that according to Islam the punishment for a Muslim who turns to kufr (infidelity, blasphemy) is execution. Doubt about this matter first arose among Muslims during the final portion of the nineteenth century as a result of speculation. Otherwise, for the full twelve centuries prior to that time the total Muslim community remained unanimous about it". Læs mere.

Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, Apostacy (Irtidad) in Islam
En kort artikel af en muslim om apostasi af en muslimsk lærd fra Toronto, Canada. Læs mere .

Aminah Tønnsen, Frafald fra islam
"Trosfrihed er et fundamentalt princip i Koranen. Alligevel er det en udbredt opfattelse blandt muslimer såvel som ikke-muslimer, at en frafalden (murtadd) muslim straffes med døden. At straffe en muslim ved frafald ville imidlertid være stik imod Koranens bogstav og ånd Læs mere. Et andet synspunkt repræsenterer Abdul Wahid Pedersen. Læs mere.

S. A . Rahman, Punishment of Apostasy in Islam (1986)
Hævder, at verset 2,256 ("Der er ingen tvang i religion")er et af de vigtigste i koranen, og at det garanterer religionsfrihed.

On Apostasy and Islam: 100+ Notable Islamic Voices affirming the Freedom of Faith
En lang liste af muslimske lærde, som forsvarer religionsfrihed og går imod den klassiske tolkning af apostasi-straffene. Læs mere

Ibrahim B. Syed, Is Killing an Apostate in the Islamic Law?
Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph´D, der er præsident for Islamic Research Foundation International i Louisville, Kentucky, USA argumenterer i denne artikel for, at dødsstraf for apostasi ikke hører med til islamisk lov. i Iran
Oversat fra farsi til dansk af Massoud Fouroozandeh. Læs mere.


5. Ikke-muslimske synspunkter på apostasi:

Samuel Zwemer, The Law of Apostasy in Islam
Læs hele den kristne islam-missionær og islam-forsker Samuel Zwemers klassiker fra 1924 om apostasi. Læs mere. Den 174 sider lange bog, kan også downloades som pfd fil. Klik her.

Barnabas Foundation, "The Islamic Law of Apostasy: join our campaign for its abolition"
Læs mere.

Angeline Thodorou, "Which Countries still Outlaw Apostasy?". Pew Foundation.
Læs mere.

The Application of the Apostasy Law in the World Today (Barnabas Foundation)
"
For most contemporary Muslims across the spectrum of beliefs and ideologies, apostasy still carries shocking and dreadful associations as a most abhorrent sin. Even for modernists and secularists it carries negative connotations of betrayal of one’s community and rejection of one’s heritage." Artikel af Barnabas Fund. Læs mere.

Henrik Ertner Rasmussen, Commentary, Religious Freedom under Islam
Dansk Europamissions generalsekretær Henrik Ertner Rasmussen diskutterer i denne artikel, fra Forum 18, islamiske synspunkter og muslimske praksisser omkring religiøs frihed og herunder retten til omvendelse. Læs mere.

Anthony Browne, Muslim apostates cast out and at risk from faith and family (2005)
Artikel i The Times 5/2/05 om den behandling, som de 200.000 muslimer, der er konverteret til kristendommen bliver udsat for. Læs mere.

Cottee, Simon, The Apostates: When Muslims Leave Islam (London: Hurst & Co., 2015)

 


6. Apostater - Eks-muslimer

Centralrådet for eks-muslimer i Skandinaven
Ikke-troende, ateister og eksmuslimer har oprettet en skandinavisk afdeling af "Eks-muslimer". Læs mere.

Eksmuslime.de
Website for Zentralrat der ex-Muslime i Tyskland. Læs mere.

Council of Ex-Muslims  of Britain
Website for den engelsk gren af organisationen for tidligere muslimer. Læs mere.

Apostates of Islam:
"We are ex-Muslims. Some of us were born and raised in Islam and some of us had converted to Islam at some moment in our lives." Læs mere.

Faith Freedom Int.:
Faith Freedom is a grassroots movement of ex-Muslims whose purpose among other things is to help Muslims leave Islam. Læs mere


7. Apostasi-cases

Apostasi i Algeriet
I 2006 indførtes strenge straffe for medvirken til apostasi i Algeriet. Samtidig begrænsedes de kristnes religionsfrihed.

Algeria: Why authorities have begun clamping down on Christians. - Compas Direct News 27/05/08
Increase in converts apparently alarms Islamic nation. Half of the country's 50 protestant churches have been closed. Most of the closures stem from enforcement of Ordinance 06-03, a law restricting worship of non-Muslims passed in February 2006 but not enforced until this year. In addition to church closures, Protestants have been arrested in western Algeria as they travel between cities or exit religious meetings, and Catholics have been prevented from regular ministry activities outside their church walls. .. “They are trying to scare people that Algeria is becoming Christian,” said an Algiers leader. “And they are trying to scare the Christians to stop evangelizing.” by the Algerian government in 2006 to legislate the religious activities of non-Muslims severely threatens the growing Christian Church in that country. They not only contravene the Algerian Constitution, but also the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, both of which Algeria has signed." Read more.

"Anti-conversion law passed in 'tolerant' Algeria" - WorldNetDaily.com 30/03/06
"five years and a fine of up to about $12,000 for whomever "incites, constrains or utilizes means of seduction tending to convert a Muslim to another religion, or by using to this end establishments for teaching, for education, for health, of a social or cultural nature, or training institutions, or any other establishment, or any financial means, makes, stores, or distributes printed documents or audiovisual productions or by any other aid or means, which has as its goal to shake the faith of a Muslim." In addition, the Algerian government now will regulate all places where Christians can worship, with the officially-Muslim government having to explicitly approve any new Christian church. House churches are explicitly banned. The law says, "Collective exercise of religious worship takes place exclusively in structures intended for this purpose, open to the public and identifiable from the exterior.""  Read more.

 


Apostasi i Egypten

Den egyptiske stormuftis udtalelser om retten til at skifte religion skabte stor debat. Ligeledes Mohammed Ahmed Hegazy ønske om at konvertere fra islam til kristendom.Læs mere. (IKKE OPDATERET)

Apostasi i England
Der er tegn på, at konvertitter fra islam udsættes for forfølgelse i England i disse år. Læs mere.(IKKE OPDATERET)

Apostasi i Malaysia
Sagen omkring Linja Joy, som forgæves har forsøgt at få sin konversion fra islam til kristendom registreret hos myndighederne. Læs mere.(IKKE OPDATERET)


Apostasi i Norge

Felles uttalelse om trosfrihet og konvertering
Efter flere års dialog har Islamsk Råd Norge og Mellomkirkelig råd for Den norske kirke i fællesskab udarbejdet en udtalelse, der fastslår retten til konvertering, også for muslimer.
Download.