Boka Haram

Boko Haram er en militant islamistisk gruppe i Nigeria, hvis mål det er at indføre shari'a i hele landet. Gruppens officielle arabiske navn er Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad, som betyder Fælleskabet af dem som vil fremme profetens lære og jihad. Boka Haram er Hausa og betyder direkte oversat "Vestlig uddannelse forbudt". Gruppen er grundlagt i 2002 og dens leder var Mohammed Yusuf indtil 2009, da han i forbindelse med Boko Haram optøjer blev dræbt. Gruppen blev internationalt kendt i august 2011, da den angreb FNs bygning i Abuja. DEn 14. april 2014 bortførte Boko Haram 276 især kristne skolepiger i Borno stat. I alt har Boko Harams terrorangreb kostet omkring 12000 menneskeliv.

 

On-line litteratur om Boko Haram

Adesoji, Abimbola, "The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Nigeria"(AfricaSpectrum2/2010:95-108).
"From the 1980 Maitatsine uprising to the 2009 Boko Haram uprising, Nigeria was bedevilled by ethno-religious conflicts with devastating human and material losses. But the Boko Haram uprising of July 2009 was significant in that it not only set a precedent, but also reinforced the attempts by Islamic conservative elements at imposing a variant of Islamic religious ideology on a secular state. Whereas the religious sensitivity of Nigerians provided fertile ground for the breeding of the Boko Haram sect, the sect’s blossoming was also aided by the prevailing economic dislocation in Nigerian society, the advent of party politics (and the associated desperation of politicians for political power), and the ambivalence of some vocal Islamic leaders, who, though they did not actively embark on insurrection, either did nothing to stop it from fomenting, or only feebly condemned it. These internal factors coupled with growing Islamic fundamentalism around the world make a highly volatile Nigerian society prone to violence, as evidenced by the Boko Haram uprising. Given the approach of the Nigerian state to religious conflict, this violence may remain a recurring problem. This paper documents and analyses the Boko Haram uprising, as well as its links with the promotion of Islamic revivalism and the challenges it poses to the secularity of the Nigerian state." Download.

Alao, Abiodun, "Islamic Radicalisation and Violence in Nigeria"
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Amaliya, Mark &
Michael Nwankpa "Assessing Boko Haram: A Conversation". Journal of Terrorism Research (2013)
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Boko Haram: A Brief Bibliography of Open Source Information
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Chothia, Farouk, "Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists?" ( BBC, August 26, 2011).
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Cook, David, "Boko Haram: A Prognosis" (Dec. 2012)
"In the short term, the most likely goal of Boko Haram is to clear out the region of Yobe and Borno states of Christians and any government presence in order to establish an Islamic state where Muslims from other regions of Nigeria can make hijra and use as a base. In some ways this goal has been largely accomplished, as many Christians have fled Maiduguri and Damaturu.67 However, this fact Online Pokies has hardened the opposition to Boko Haram throughout the country—not only among Christians and government elements, but among Northern Muslim elites as well." Download.

Danjibo, N. D., "Islamic Fundamentalism and Sectarian Violence: The “Maitatsine” and “Boko Haram” Crises in Northern Nigeria" (IFRA Conference on Conflict and Violence in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 2009 Conference in Zaria (Clément Boutillier ed.).
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de Montclos, Marc-Antoine Perouse, (ed.) Boko Haram:Islamism, politics, security and the state in Nigeria (African Studies  Centre, 2014)
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Forest, James J. F., Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria (May 2012)
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IRIN,"Analysis: Understanding Nigeria's Boko Haram Radicals". (June 18, 2011).
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McCormack, David, "An African Vortex: islamism in Sub-Saharan Africa" (Jan 2005)
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Murtadad, Ahmad, Boko Haram in Nigeria: Its Beginnings, Principles and Actiities (2013)
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Muzaffar, Chandra, "Boko Haram and the Politics of Terror in Nigeria". Global Research, May 14, 2014.
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Oloja, Akinola, "Nigeria's Troubled North: Interrogating the Drivers of Public Support for Boko Haram". International Centre for Counterterrorism, The Hague, 2013.
"In this Research Paper, ICCT Visiting Fellow Akinola Olojo examines the key drivers of public support for Boko Haram in northern Nigeria.The author suggests that the effective formulation and implementation of a proactive (Nigerian) counter-terrorism strategy requires an incisive understanding of the political, socio-economic and religious/ideological drivers of public support for the group. The multi-dimensional nature of the Boko Haram crisis in northern Nigeria challenges conventional approaches used in addressing terrorist violence. Olojo reflects on the need for a bold mix of interventions and partnerships that combine elements of both hard and soft power. The application of these approaches by both domestic actors and external partners must necessarily draw upon an understanding of the key drivers that this paper explores." Download.

Rogers, Paul, "Nigeria: The generic context of the Boko Haram Violence" (2012)
"With much written about the movement over the past year, this briefing will focus on the role of economic and political marginalisation in fostering violence. For over a decade, Oxford Research Group has sought to analyse what may be termed “revolts from the margins”, and there may be a sense in which Boko Haram relates to this concept."Download.

Salifu,Uyu, "Nigeria: Understanding the Dynamics of Islamic Radicalism in Nigeria Is Key to Bringing Boko Haram to Book" (Aug 31, 2012)
"According to the historian Niels Kastfelt, the historical roots of Islamic radicalisation are found in the amalgamation of southern and northern Nigeria in 1914 and the emergence of constitutional regionalism and regionally based political parties in the 1950s. These events resulted in the politicisation of religion as affiliation to political parties developed on the basis of religion, particularly along Christian-Muslim lines. An additional factor is the emergence of the 'maitasine revolution' in the 1980s, which centred on purifying Islam and rejecting aspects of Western civilisation that were perceived to corrupt Islamic reverence." Download.

Stewart, Scott, "The Rising Threat from Boko Haram" (Stratfor Intelligence, Nov. 10,  2011)
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Stewart, Scott, "Is Boko Haram More Dangerous than Ever?" (Stratfor Intelligence, Dec. 13, 2012)
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The Economist, "Nigeria's crisi: A threat to the entire country" (Sept. 29, 2012).
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The Economist, "Jihad in Africa: The Danger in the Desert" (Jan 26, 2013)
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Walker, Andrew, "What is Boko Haram?" (United States Institute of Peace. Special Report. 2013)
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Articles by Mogens S. Mogensen

"Boko Harams genealogi".
Blog-indlæg, Eftertanke.dk, den 31. oktober 2012. Download

"Terrorisme i Nigeria - fra Boko Haram til Ansaru"
Blog-indlæg, Wordpress, den 21. februar 2013. Download.

 

Other media

Tande, Dibussi, "Beyond Boko Haram: The Rise of Fundamenalist Islam in Nigeria" (June 2012) PPP
Presentation at conference on threats to Nigeria's security at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, DC.

 

 

 

Links

Facebook: Boko Haram.
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