Religionsmøde

NY BOG OM "RELIGIØS MANGFOLDIGHED OG RELIGIONSMØDE"

bogomslag 1I de seneste år er religion – til manges overraskelse – begyndt at fylde meget mere i det danske samfund, i den offentlige debat og i det politiske liv – og også internationalt er der i dag et større fokus på religion end tidligere. Derfor er der al mulig grund til at analysere og reflektere over den religiøse mangfoldighed og religionsmøder, som det sker i denne bog.

 

 

Bogen, som henvender sig til alle, der ønsker en dybere forståelse af denne problematik. indeholder følgende kapitler:

 

  • Religion i Danmark i det 21. Århundrede
  • Hvad er kristendom?
  • Hvad er islam?
  • Luther og muslimerne
  • Kampen om religionsfrihed i kristendommen
  • Kampen om religionsfrihed i islam                                     
  • Religionsforfølgelse
  • Religiøs terrorisme
  • Mission og dialog
  • Konversion

Bogen består af en lang række artikler, skrevet inden for de seneste 10 år. Den første og længste kapitel (1) er en artiel, der beskriver og analysere den religiøse udvikling i Danmark under overskrifterne "Tradition og folkekirke", "Modernitet og sekularisering", "Globaliserig og multireligiøsitet" og "Postmodernitet og nyåndelighed". Der er to artikler om mangfoldigheden inden for kristendom og kampen for religionsfrihed i kristendommen, lige som der er to artikler om mangfoldigheden inden for islam og kampen for religionsfrihed i islam. Der er artikler, der går i dybden med forfølgelse af kristne og andre religiøse grupper og om terrorisme som fænomen, i forskellige religioner. Endelig er der artikler , der beskriver kristnes møde med ikke-kristne i dialog og mission, og herunder også konversion til kristendommen, bla. fra islam, ligesom der i den afsluttende artikel, der er den eneste på engelsk, tegnes et samlet billede af konversion mellem religionerne i Danmark.

Læs som en smagsprøve på bogen kapitlet "Hvad er islam?" Klik her.

Forfatter: Mogens S. Mogensen,
Titel: Religiøs mangfoldighed og religionsmøder
Forlag: Forlaget Intercultural.dk
Antal sider: 250
Indbinding: Hard cover
Pris: 200 kr. plus forsendelse (kr. 54).

Bogen kan bestilles her:
Mogens S. Mogensen
Forlaget Intercultural.dk
N. J. Holms Park 55
6070 Christiansfeld
Mail: Denne e-mail adresse bliver beskyttet mod spambots. Du skal have JavaScript aktiveret for at vise den.
Tele: 2617 5712

 

 

 

Religionsfrihed i religionerne - Freedom of religion in religions

 

 

Den kristne tradition

Ardelean, Ben-Oni
2010    Bible and Religious Freedom. Baptist eological Institute, Bucharest. Download.

Murray, John Courtney
1965      The Problem of Religious Freedom. Download.

Declaration on Religious Freedom. Dignitatis Humanae. On the Right of the Person and of Communities to Social and Civil Freedom in Matters Religious promulgated by his Holiness Pope Paul VI on December 7, 1965. Download

Frickel, Joseph
1998    Catholicism and Religious Freedom - A Paradox. Download.

Grasso, Kenneth & Robert P. Hunter (eds.)
2006     Catholicism and Religious Freedom: Contemporary Reflections on Vatican II's Declaration on Religious Libeerty.

Humbaier, Balthasar
1524       Om kætterne og dem, der brænder dem. Download.

Bent Hylleberg:
1999     "Grundloven, baptisterne og religionsfriheden", Ælnoths Skriftserie, nr. 9, 1999.

Menneskets værdighed. Dignitatis Humanæ. 1965      Med forord af Oluf Bohn. Download.

Mønster, P.C
1840        Andragende om fuld religionsfrihed for Danmark. Download.

Locke, John
1689     A Letter Concerning Toleration. Download.

Rasmussen, Jens
2009      Religionstolerance og religionsfrihed. Forudsætninger og Grundloven i 1849. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Anmeldelse ved Claus Friisberg. Download.

Shepheard, Freerick M. (ed.)
2009       Christianity and Human Rights. Christians and the Struggle for Global Justice. Lanham: Lexington Books. Download.

Schirmacher, Thomas
2014    "Freedom of Religion and European Identity". Mogens S. Mogrensen (ed.), Religionsfrihed og religionsforfølgelse. Ny Mission nr. 27. Pp. 32-42. Download.

Shah, Tomothy and Allen Hertzke (eds.)
2016 Christianity and Freedom: Historical Perspectives (Vol. 1)
Authors ”uncover the unappreciated role of Christianity in the development of basic human rights and freedoms from antiquity through today. These include radical notions of dignity and equality, religious freedom, liberty of conscience, limited government, consent of the governed, economic liberty, autonomous civil society, and church-state separation, as well as more recent advances in democracy, human rights, and human development. Acknowledging that the record is mixed, scholars document how the seeds of freedom in Christianity antedate and ultimately undermine later Christian justifications and practices of persecution.”

2016 Christianity and Freedom: Contemporary Perspectives (Vol. 2)
"Volume 2 of Christianity and Freedom illuminates how Christian minorities and transnational Christian networks contribute to the freedom and flourishing of societies across the globe, even amidst pressure and violent persecution. Featuring unprecedented field research by some of the world's most distinguished scholars, it documents the outsized role of Christians in promoting human rights and religious freedom; fighting injustice; stimulating economic equality; providing education, social services, and health care; and nurturing democratic civil society. Readers will come away surprised and sobered to learn how this very Christian link to freedom often invites persecution. What are the dimensions of persecution and how are Christians responding to that pressure? What resources—theological, social, or transnational - do they marshal in leavening their societies? What will be lost if the Christian presence is marginalized? The answers to these questions are of crucial relevance in a world awash with religious extremism and deepening instability."

Trim, David B.
2011     Reformation, Tolerance and Persecution. Download.

Wallace, E. Gregory
Justifying Religious Freedom:  The Western Tradition. Download.
"
Luther  opposed  persecution  of  heretics  in  his  earlyyears.  He advocated  for  “freedom  of  conscience”  as  part  of  his  thinking  about Christian  liberty.  He  also  drew  a  sharp  distinction  between  church  and state  in  his  famous  doctrine  of  the  two  kingdoms.  Coffey  notes  that“[t]hough   he   eventually   retracted   his   views   and   returned   to   the Augustinian  position,  Luther’s  early  polemic  against  religious  coercion was to be quoted repeatedly by later tolerationist writers" (. 546).

Øhrstrøm, Søren Dyrbye
2017   Religionsfrihed, tolerance og religiøs oplæring:  En normativ politisk analyse af  reguleringen af trossamfunds forkyndelsesfrihed. Speciale. Download.

 

 

Den islamiske tradition

 

 

Den jødiske tradition

 

Den hinduistiske tradition

 

 

Den buddhistiske tradition

 

 

Secular tradtions

 

Coffey, John
2003     The Myth of Secular Tolerance. Download.

Pastorale udfordringer i religionsmødet

 

 

Interreligiøs respons på kriser

Leirvik, Oddbjørn. 2014. Interreligious Studies: A Relational Approach to Religious Activism and the Study of Religion. London: Bloomsbury.
"The notion of Interreligious Studies signals a new academic perspective on the study of religion, characterized by a relational approach. Interreligious Studies defines the essential features of interreligious studies compared with alternative conceptions of religious studies and theology. The book discusses pressing and salient challenges in interreligious relations, including interreligious dialogue in practice and theory, interfaith dialogue and secularity, confrontational identity politics, faith-based diplomacy, the question of interfaith learning in school, and interreligious responses to extremism. Interreligious Studies is a cutting-edge study from one of the most important voices in Europe in the field, Oddbjørn Leirvik, and includes case study material from his native Norway including interreligious responses to the bomb attack in Norway on 22nd July 2011, as well as examples from a number of other national and global contexts."

Moyaert, Mariann & Joris Geldhof, Ritual Participation and Interreligious Dialogue.
Download.

Musk, Bill, "Kristne og muslimer er fra samme planet". Religion.dk, den 4. april 2007.
Download.

Pratt, Douglas, Parameter for Interreligious Prayer. World Coundil of Churches.
Download.

Sterchele, Davide, "The Limits of Inter-religious Dialogue and the Form of Football Rituals: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovna" Social Compass June 2007. 54:211-224
The difficulties with interfaith dialogue are linked, at least in part, to the lack of ritual forms (consisting of rules, ceremonial idioms, liturgy, and repertoires of action) designed to unite and integrate the "meta-group "formed by the various religious communities. By means of ethnographic research conducted in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the author studied the mechanisms with which, under particular conditions, some forms of collective ritual were able to create opportunities for the re-integration of the Bosnian population, which had been profoundly divided after the terrible war of 1992–95. Comparing the forms of religious rituals and those of sports rituals–in particular, of football rituals–the author develops some considerations that can be applied to the general debate about inter-religious dialogue. The comparison brings to light some of the limits and difficulties that religious institutions encounter in giving life to an interfaith dialogue that directly and concretely involves the members of different communities.

Svenska Kyrkan, De kyrkliga handlingarna i en mångreligiøs kontext (2012)
Download.

Den Norske Kirke, Religionsmøötet vet kirkelige handlinger. En vejledning fra bispemødet. 2016
Download

Sunnisme - Shi'isme

BBC, "Sunni and Shi'a" (2008)
Download.

Egil Bargfeld, "Hvad er sunni- og shi'a islam?" Religion.dk, 2011.
Download.

Zand, Afshin, Shiism and Sunnism, Iran and Islam. The Continuity of Zoroastrian Beliefs in Iran
March 1992

Artikler, blogindlæg og interviews af Mogens S. Mogensen vedrørende Fyens Stifts migrantarbejde

 

Artikler og blogindlæg

Migrantdåb: Enhver kristen dåb er indlemmelse i en menighed.
Kristendom.dk, den 5. december 2013.

Dåben er altid en indlemmelse i Kristi legeme.
Kristeligt Dagblad, den 7. december 2013.

Biskoppernes fællesudtalelse om arbejdet blandt muslimer i Danmark
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den 8. december 2013

"Problematisk: Migrantmenighed beder dåbskandidater om at adlyde præsten"
Kristendom.dk, den 17. december 2013.


”Folkekirkens Migrantarbejde” – Er der behov for nye ordninger?

https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den
14. december 2013

Enigheder og uenigheder i debatten om ”Folkekirkens Migrantarbejde” – en analyse
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den
18. December 2013

Videreførelsen af "Folkekirkens migrantarbejde"
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den
1. September 2014

Dialog og mission i folkekirken - 1
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den 1. september 2014

Dialog og mission i folkekirken - 2
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com,, den 4. september 2014

Katrine Winkel Holms manglende forståelse for diakoni
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den
6. september 2014

Valgmenighedsordningen – en folkekirkelig friheds- eller også fællesskabsordning?
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den
12. september 2014

Forbrødring mellem Tidehverv og Indre Mission?
Kristendom.dk 26. september 2014

Migrant-valgmenighed – et spændende eksperiment
Kristendom.dk, den 7. oktober 2014

Den forbudte dåb - om Massoud-sagen
https://mogenssmogensen.wordpress.com, den 18. oktober 2014.

 

Interviews

Tobias Stern Johansen, ”Kritik af biskop og præst for smøleri i dåbssag
Kristeligt Dagblad, den 18. december 2013

Anne Katrine Gottfred Jensen, ”Hvad handler Massoudsagen egentlig om?
Kristeligt Dagblad, den 10. september 2014

Kirken får sin første migrant-valgmenighed
Folkekirken.dk, den 8. oktober 2014

Artikler af Mogens S. Mogensen om religionsfrihed og forfølgelse

 

"Folkekirken og forfulgte kristne". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen, den 9. august 2014. Download.

"Bliver kristendommen udryddet i Irak". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen, den 5. august 2014. Download.

 "Fakta og teorier om religiøs forfølgelse". Maj 2014. Download.

"Religiøs forfølgelse - vedkommer det os?". Klumme i Tyrstrup Herreds Tidende, den 26. maj 2014. Download.

"Fra forfulgte kristne til forfølgende kristne. Etnisk udrensning af muslimer i Den Centralafrikanske Republik". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen, den 14. maj 2014. Download.

"Hvordan kan vi hjælpe kristne, der lider for deres tro og bliver forfulgt?".  Wordpress.mogenssmogensen, den 14. marts 2014. Download.

"Hvordan hjælper vi kristne, der lider for deres tro og bliver forfulgt?" Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 14. marts 2014. Download.

"Hvad er forfølgelse?". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 11. marts 2014. Download

"Religionsfriheden er ikke i høj kurs i dag". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 9. marts 2014. Download.

"Folkekirken arbejder aktivt for at hjælpe forfulgte kristne". Kommentar i Kristeligt Dagblad, den 28. november 2013. Download.

"Vesten har brug for kritik af overgreb mod Mellemøstens kristne". Religionsanalyse på Religion.dk, den 12. september 2013 Download.

"Kriten tilstedeværelse og vidnesbyrd i Mellemøsten. Sammen med Uffe Gjerding. Kronik i Kristeligt Dagblad, den 8. juni 2013. Download.

"Om forfulgte kristne, den vanskelige diskurs". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 26. maj 2013. Download.

"Hvilke forventninger har de mellemøstlige kristne til kirker og os i vesten". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 24. maj 2013. Download.

"Fokus på 'forfulgte kristne' eller 'trosfrihed'?" Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com. den 14. december, 2012. Download.

"Trosfrihed, et vigtigt tema i dansk udenrigspolitik". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 6. september 2012. Download.

"Frihed til at tro, tænke og tale". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 25. november 2011. Download.

"Kristne og religiøs forfølgelse". Religion.dk, tirsdag, den 16. november 2010. Download.

"Forfølgelse og diskrimination af religiøse mindretal". Wordpress.mogenssmogensen.com, den 14. januar 2010. Download.

"Frihed for muslimer såvel som for kristne". Religion.dk, den 2. juni 2008. Download.

Multi-faith roomMulti-Faith Spaces

Et forskningsprojekt på University of Manchester har defineret multi-faith space som "an intentional space designed to both house a plurality of religious practices, as well as addres (more or less) clearly defined pragmatic purposes". I Storbritannien er der i dag omkring 2000 "multi-faith spaces", de fleste etableret efter 2000. Der findes grundlæggende to forskellige typer af multi-faith spaces. Den første type indebærer, at flere religioner deler samme lokalitet. En sådan lokalitet kan være men behøver ikke at være et indviet gudstjenestested, og det vil ofte være placeret i en bredere institutionel sammenhæng som fx et hospital, en lufthavn eller en uddannelsesinstitution.Den anden type af multi-faith spaces er bygningskomplekser, hvor hver religion har sin egen kirke/moske/synagoge e.l. i separate bygninger eller rum, men etableret så tæt ved hinanden, at de udgør et sammenhængende bygningskomples eller bebygget areal.

 

Literature

Biddington, Terry, ”Towards a Theological Reading of Multifaith Spaces ”. Manchester University, UK (2013)
”Despite the existence of occasional shared or mixed religious spaces in the past, ‘multifaith spaces’ are relatively new phenomena and issues about their purpose, design, management, use and value are still emerging. While there is no ‘theology of multifaith spaces’, this article pursues an initial theological reading asking: how multifaith spaces relate to the heterotopias, non-spaces and Thirdspaces of some social theorists; what the theological issues around multifaith spaces are for those religious believers who use them; what theological approaches and language might begin to name and explore the potential of multifaith spaces for new shared understandings of human identity; and how multifaith spaces relate to notions of God.” Download.

Charlton, Matthew W., "Sharing Space: Philosophical, Theological, and Wesleyan Resources for Sharing
Sacred Space amongst the Religions"
"This paper seeks to offer some ideas around the sharing of sacred space. The following series of questions frame the concern: should the religions share a worship space? Can they? Are there appropriate limits that honor the specific sacred nature of the religions that render this possible or impossible? Are multi-faith spaces like military chapels and university chapels sacred spaces or just spaces used for various forms of worship, whose sacredness enters and leaves with the worshipers? What is the status of the sacred space of a church consecrated for Christian worship when confronted with this kind of inter-religious question?" Download.

Crompton, Andrew, "The architecture of multifaith spaces: God leaves the building". The Journal of Architecture 18(4):74-496. 2013
Download.

de Velasco, Francisco Díez , "Multi-belief/Multi-faith Spaces: Theoretical Proposals for a Neutraland Operational Design"  RECODE – Responding to Complex Diversity in Europe and Canada (2014) The implementation of multi-belief/multi-faith spaces (MBS/MFS) is becoming an increasing practice in a globalised world, as it addresses the need to offer spaces for worship and  religious ritual in public institutions and places, such as airports and train stations, cemeteries, hospitals, prisons, military quarters, homes for the elderly, educational and recreational centres, and even in shopping malls and work centres. This is raising a number of questions and challenges from the theoretical point of view. MBS/MFS prevent having tomultiply the places for worship for every single religious option, while overcoming the thorny issue of favouring some religions over others. In cases such as illness or confinement, there is a clear demand for spaces that facilitate reflection and introspection, spaces that could be described as spiritual or seclusive, rather than religious in the strictest sense of the word. We are then faced with a situation in which the post-religious condition intermingles with the post-secular one. MBS/MFS must be acceptable as places of worship for the many religious groups that might require them, but also for users who lack any strong religious identity, and who might wish to use them as areas for quiet reflection and introspection. The design of MBS/MFS must deal with geographical orientation (a relevant issue for religions like Islam, Judaism and Orthodox Christinity), the simultaneous use of the space and conflicting timetables, physical position during worship, separation of genders, and hygiene needs, among other questions. Neutrality (and the avoidance of religiocentric premises) therefore is the main issue to be taken into consideration for the design of those kinds of spaces, even if perfect neutrality will not be possible. The paper concludes with a call for a pragmatic andcontextual approach to this issue, including a detailed analysis of each centre and its specific circumstances, which can enable MBS/MFS to be an investment for the future that will satisfy the greatest number of potential users without causing conflict." Download.

Gilliat-Ray, Sophie, "From 'chapel' to 'prayerroom': the production, use and politics of sacred space in public institutions" Culture and Religion 6(2) (2005) 
"This paper begins historically, by examining some of the ways in which the use of Christian Chapels has changed in prisons and hospitals over time, and, with it, the meanings such uses have had for their users. This is followed by an in-depth evaluation of the way in which newly created sacred spaces are used in public institutions, using the two main religious sites at the Millennium Dome as a case study, namely the ‘Prayer Space’ and the ‘Muslim Prayer Room’. In the final sections of the paper, I consider some of the politics of sacred space in public institutions, both when space is re-produced or transformed (from ‘Chapel’ to‘Prayer Room’), but also when it is newly produced, as at the Dome." Download.

Hewson, Chris, "Multi-faith Spaces: Symptoms and Agents of Religious and Social Change". University of Manchester. January 1, 2010).
Introduction to the research project at the University of Manchester on "Multi-faith Spaces: Symptoms and Agents of Religious and Social Change". Download.

Hewson, Chris & Ralf Brand, "Multi-Faith Space: Towards a Practice-based Assessment" (2011)
Download.

Hewson, Chris & Ralf Brand, "Multireligiøse rum bribnger ikke nødvendigvis folk sammen". Religion.dk, den 8. august 2012
"Multireligiøse rum skal defineres løst, for de fortolkes forskelligt, afhængig af hvem vi er. I vores projekt: Multi-faith Spaces: Symptoms & Agents of Religious and Social Change har vi defineret multireligiøse rum som “bevidste rum”, der er designet til at rumme et flertal af religiøse praksisser, og som har (mere eller mindre) tydeligt definerede formål, samtidig med at de udgør en type af rum, man ikke finder andre steder i nærheden," Download.

Jacobsen, Brian Arly, ”Debatten om bederum på hospitaler handler også om de ikke-religiøse”. Religionsanalyse, Religion.dk, den 12. maj 2013.
Download.

Keller, Claudia, "The House of One. Drei Religionen, ein Gotteshaus" (Der Tagesspiel 3/6/2014)
"Keine Kirche, keine Synagoge, keine Moschee, sondern alles in einem: Auf dem Petriplatz in Berlin-Mitte soll ein einmaliges Projekt realisiert werden - per Crowdfunding." Download.

Ottestig, Johannes, "Kyrkan samlar inn til moske-bygge". Dagen, den 15. april, 2014.
Download.

Svenska Kyrkan, "Så startede Guds Hus i Fisksätra".
Download.

Svneska Kyrakan, "Guds Hus - ett samarbete för fredlig sameksistens i Fisksätra" (april 2014)
Download.

"World's first combined mosque-synagogue-church to be built in Berlin" (Tribune, December 3)
Download. See also this article on the same subject.

Collection of articles, websites etc from Manchester research program.
Download



Forskningsprojekter

Multi-Faith Spaces - Symptoms and Agents of Religious and Social Change
Forskaningsprojekt ved University of Manchester 2009-2013.


Links

Tri-Faith Initiative, Omaha, Nebraska
"The Tri-Faith Initiative, a partnership of the three Abrahamic faith groups — Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, plans to build a Tri-Faith Center to co-locate with Temple Israel, a new church for the Episcopal Diocese of Nebraska and a mosque for the American Institute of Islamic Studies and Culture. These four buildings will form a multi-faith neighborhood of collaboration."

Guds Hus, Fisksätra, Nacka, Stockholm
"Med utgångspunkt i vår gemensamma tro att Gud är En vill vi bygga ett Guds hus som en yttre manifestation av den gudomliga verkligheten. Vår gemensamma vision är att: - samla de stora religiösa samfunden i Fisksätra i en gemensam praktisk och ideologisk sam­verkan i ett gemensamt hus - tillvarata samfundens möjligheter att skapa tillit i kulturell mångfald i Fisksätra - genom dialog visa på samarbetets fredsskapande möjligheter."

 

Artikler af Mogens S. Mogensen

"Religionsmøde på svensk - Guds hus i Fisksätra" - Blogindlæg 28. marts 2014
Download.

"Ny trend: Religionerne flytter sammen". Religionsanalyse, Religion.dk, den 22. april 2014.
Download.

"Flerreligiøse og spirituelle rum i sekulære institutioner" (den 9. maj 2014)
Download.

Dansk debat om religionsneutrale rum på sygehuse

Allerede i dag er der flere sygehuse, som har religionsneutrale/tværreligiøse rum, eller kapeller, hvor kristne symboler er fjernet, og på flere nye hospitaler er der planer om at etablere religionsneutrale refleksionsrum. De religionsneutrale rum har imidlertid ført til en heftig debat.


Hansen, Mette Skov, "Hospital bygger bederum med udskiftelige religiøse symboler". Kristeligt Daglad, den 6. januar 2014
"Ved det nye hospital i Gødstrup er målet også at skabe plads til alle i refleksionsrummet og kapellet, hvilket har krævet mange overvejelser samt en inspirationstur til Manchester i England, hvor refleksionsrum tænkes ind i lufthavne, sygehuse og storcentre. Derudover er der blevet holdt møder med borgere og forskellige trossamfund." Download.

Hansen, Mette Skov, "Sygehuse satser på religionsneutrale rum". Kristeligt Dagblad, den 6. januar 2014

"I flere af landets sygehusbyggerier er der planer om tværreligiøse bede- og refleksionsrum og symbolløse kapeller. Det tilgodeser den større mangfoldighed i dag, lyder forklaringen, men regionsrådsmedlem mener, at et kristent land bør prioritere kristne symboler."   Download.

DR-dk TV-syd, "Sygehuskapeller bliver til multireligionsrum", den 6. januar 2014
"Hjul under korset og krucifiks, der kan tages ned fra væggen.Sådan kunne fremtidens sygehuskapeller i Syd- og Sønderjylland meget vel se ud. Blandt andet på Sydvestjysk Sygehus Esbjerg, hvor kapellet står foran en renovering. Rummet skal være mere fleksibelt, så det kan indrettes til forskellige religioner og deres symbolik." Download.

Hansen, Mette Skov, "Dansk religionsneutralitet er et typisk kompromis". Kristeligt Dagblad, den 14. januar 2014.
"Ifølge lektor på Institut for Kultur og Identitet på Roskilde Universitet Sune Lægaard diskuteres spørgsmålet om religiøse symboler i det offentlige rum i flere lande, og her kan man i grove træk tale om tre synspunkter: at nogle religiøse symboler skal have en særlig plads i offentlige rum, fordi de er udtryk for majoritetens religion, at offentlige rum bør være religiøst neutrale, fordi borgerne bør behandles lige, og at lighed sikres ved at inkludere alle religiøse udtryk." Download.

Iversen, Hans Raun, "Fra stedets kirke til kirkens sted" (Kristeligt Dagblad, den 4. juni 2014)
"I Tyskland taler man om en bevægelse bort fra "stedets kirke" hen mod "kirkens sted". Kirke er i fremtiden ikke blot noget, der findes i lokalsamfundet, men noget, der bliver til og finder sted i helt nye sammenhænge. Folkekirken melder sig ud af samfundsudviklingen, hvis den kun kan finde ud af at påberåbe sig retten til, at der skal være en traditionel kirke som "stedets kirke" på hver af de nye institutioner".  Download.

 

Radio og TV

DR1- Religionsrapport - den 13. maj 2014
"Lige nu er der gang i byggekranerne flere steder i landet, hvor der er ved at blive opført nye såkaldte supersygehuse. De nye sygehuse skal være effektive behandlingssteder for alverdens sygdomme. Men de skal også fungere som steder, hvor mennesker, som er i krise, kan finde ro og trøst. Derfor er der på flere af sygehusene planer om at indrette religiøse rum eller refleksionsrum. Men hvordan skal rummene indrettes? Skal de være fyldt med religiøse symboler, eller skal de netop være renset for den slags, så der er plads til alle?
Medvirkende: Hospitalsprovst Dorte Sørensen, talsmand for Humanistisk Samfund Thorkild Svendsen og interreligiøs konsulent Mogens Mogensen.
Tilrettelæggelse: Malene Fenger-Grøndahl.
Vært: Lisbeth Brocelius Meléndez". Hør udsendelsen.

Kristen-muslimsk dialog

 

Dialog mellem kristne og muslimer i Danmark

Islamisk-Kristent Studiecenter - Center for Sameksistens (IKS)
IKS "arbejder for – gennem et ligeligt samvirke – at udvikle, styrke og forbedre sameksistensen mellem mennesker med kristen og muslimsk baggrund i Danmark. Formålet er at bibringe majoritet og minoriteter pluralistiske erfaringer, der gør det naturligt at omgås hinanden og udforske måder, hvorpå kristne og muslimer sammen kan bidrage til det fælles bedste i vort samfund.Dette formål søges nået gennem fælles studier, undervisning, foredrag, rådgivning, oplysningsmateriale, ligebehandlingsarbejde og fælles projekter. Yderligere integration opnås ved at knytte unge med minoritetsbaggrund til centret og dermed inddrage dem i frivilligt arbejde, i samfundsmæssige aktiviteter og i foreningslivet." Læs mere.

Kristent-Muslimsk Samtaleforum (KMS)
"KMS er et netværk for kristne og muslimske ledere, som er udsprunget af en række årlige konferencer siden 2006. KMS’ formål er at fremme den fælles religionssamtale og værne om og bidrage til udviklingen af det danske samfund som et demokratisk og inkluderende samfund. KMS’ mål er - at etablere kommunikationskanaler, netværk og relationer, præget af åbenhed og tillid mellem kristne og muslimske ledere - at identificere, analysere og bearbejde spændingsfylde problemstillinger- at tage initiativer hvor kristne og muslimer i fællesskab kan bidrage til samfundets positive udvikling". Læs mere.

Vestergaard, Leif,  Safet Bektovic og Mogens S. Mogensen, Rapport fra lytterunde (2006)
Rapport fra Folkekirke og Religionsmødes ”lytterunde” blandt muslimske organisationer og moskeer er nu offentliggjort. Hvad er muslimers forhold til det danske samfund? Hvad er danske muslimers selvforståelse? Kan muslimer genkende sig selv i mediebilledet? Hvad er muslimers forhold til andre religioner? Disse spørgsmål besvares i den rapport som Folkekirke og Religionsmøde netop har udsendt, "Rapport fra en lytterunde blandt muslimske organisationer og moskeer". Læs mere.

 

Dialog mellem kristne og muslimer - internationalt

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and the Encounter with Other Religions
2006 Statement issued as a response to the Cartoon Crisis, on the 6th of February 2006. Download .

Christian-Muslim Working Group
2008   "Report on Freedom of Expression - Christian-Muslim Working Group" - October 2008. Presented and accepted by the third Leadership Conference for Christian and Muslim Leaders. in a Multi-religious Society". Adopted by the Danish Mission Council on April 18, 2007. Read more.

KAICIID
2014 Muslim and Christian Religious Leaders Unite to Denounce ISIS and Violence in Iraq and Syria

“In an unprecedented demonstration of multi-religious solidarity, leaders of Christian, Muslim and other religious communities from Iraq, Syria and the larger Middle East region today have denounced with one voice all violence in the name of religion, and have called on the international community to protect religious and cultural diversity in Iraq and Syria. Religious leaders from Sunni, Shiite, Christian, Mandean, and Yazidi communities across the Middle East today jointly issued the Vienna Declaration, “United against Violence in the Name of Religion”, at the international conference organized by the KAICIID Dialogue Centre. This is the first time religious leaders representing so many different religions from a crisis region have come together as one to denounce oppression, marginalization, persecution and killing of people in the name of religion.” Download.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and teh Encounter with Other Religions
2006   "Mission and dialogue". Document adopted by the board of The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark and teh Encounter with Other Religions. Download .

von Sicard, Sigvard & Ingo Wulfhorst
2003   Dialogue and Beyond. Christians and Muslims Together on the Way. LWF Studies. Download.

 

moske-God and Allah in Islam and Christianity

In Malaysia a court - has just ruled that a Christian weekly paper, "The Herald" in its Malay-edition is not allowed to us the word God referring to the God Christians are worshipping (”Malaysia court rules non-Muslims cannot use ‘Allah’”. BBC News Asia, October 14, 2013). The Catholic Church, that owns "The Herald" has appealed the verdict, but an extremist politician calls on the government - as a punishment for the appeal - to rescind its decision to allow the Christians to use the world Allah in their bibles (Anisah Shukry, ”Teach Christians a lesson, ban al-Kitab’”. Free Malaysia Today, October 18,  2013). Read more about the "Allah-case" here. However, there are also Christians who reject the use of Allah about the God of the Christians. See the analysis of the relationship between God and Allah by Miroslav Volf, "What's in a name? Christians, Muslims and the worship of the One God" (ABC Religion & Ethics, October 19, 2013). Volf's analysis and argument is fully developed in his book Allah. A Christians Response (San Francisco: HarperOne 2011). See a review of the book here.

Religion generelt


I denne afdeling behandles spørgsmål som religionsdemografi, religionsteori, religionsteologi, religionskritik, religionsfrihed, religionsdialog, religion i det offentlige rum, religiøs fundamentalisme og religion og vold. Klik på undermenupunkterne under "Religion generelt".

 

Religionsdemografi

 

 

Pickel, Gert, Religion Monitor.Understanding Common Ground. An International Comparison of Religious Belief (Bertelsmann Stiftung 2013)
Download.

Religionsteorier

 

de Muckadell, Caroline Schaffalitzky, "Sådan defineres religion i dag" Religion.dk, den 11. oktober 2011
Download.

Luhrman, T. M., "Belief is the Least Part of Faith" (The New York Times, May 29, 2013)
"The role of belief in religion is greatly overstated, as anthropologists have long known. In 1912, Émile Durkheim, one of the founders of modern social science, argued that religion arose as a way for social groups to experience themselves as groups. ... Religious ideas arose to make sense of this experience of being part of something greater. Durkheim thought that belief was more like a flag than a philosophical position: You don’t go to church because you believe in God; rather, you believe in God because you go to church. In fact, you can argue that religious belief as we now conceptualize it is an entirely modern phenomenon." Download.

Saler, Benson, Conceptualizing Religion: Immanent Anthropologists, Transcenden Natives, and Unbounded Categories. (New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1999)
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Religion og voldReligion and violence-

"..religion is not innocent. But it does not ordinarily lead to violence. That happens only with the coalescence of a peculiar set of circumstances - political, social, and ideological - when religion becomes fused with violent expressions of social aspirations, personal pride, and movements for political change" (Mark Juergensmeyer)

 

Religion og terrorisme.

Religion og terrorisme

"..religion is not innocent. But it does not ordinarily lead to violence. That happens only with the coalescence of a peculiar set of circumstances - political, social, and ideological - when religion becomes fused with violent expressions of social aspirations, personal pride, and movements for political change" (Mark Juergensmeyer)

 

Capell, Matthew B. & Emile Sahliyeh, Suicide Terrorism: Is Religion the Critical Factor? (Security Journal (2007) 20, 267–283)
"The purpose of this article is to investigate empirically the validity of the argument that the religious nature of the terrorist groups accounts for the increase in terrorism's lethality today. In an attempt to explore the relationship between religion and terrorism's newfound lethality, the study utilizes the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism's (ICT) "International Terrorism" database between 1980 and 2002. ... The study concludes that to understand modern terrorism's increased lethality, one needs to look further than religion as a motive and take into account modern terrorists' willingness to use "suicide terror" as their primary modus operandi". Download.

Fine, Jonathan, "Contrasting Secular and Religious Terrorism" (Middle East Quarterly
Winter 2008, pp. 59-69
)
"Some researchers suggest that to understand terrorism it is more important to study what terrorists do rather than what they say. University of Chicago political scientist Robert Pape argues, for example, that Islam has little to do with suicide bombing. Rather, he suggests, that suicide bombers, wherever they are in the world, are motivated much more by tactical goals. He juxtaposes the suicide terrorism of the (non-Islamic) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) with Islamist suicide bombing to demonstrate that a desire to end occupation is the common factor rather than religion. Therefore, he suggests focus upon religion is a distraction and that policymakers seeking to stop the scourge of suicide attacks should work instead to address root causes, which he sees as the presence of troops or interests in disputed or occupied lands.Despite the revisionism advanced by Pape and others, the fact remains that most suicide bombings since 1980 in the world in general and in the Middle East in particular are sponsored by Islamist and not secular terrorist groups. Pape avoids this conclusion by gerrymandering his data so that he does not need to include the significant numbers of suicide bombings conducted by Sunnis against Shi'a in Iraq". Download

Gibson, David, "Does Religion Cause Terrorism? It's Complicated" (Huffington Post Aug 31, 2011)
"In general, scholars have concluded that religion -- be it Islam or any other faith -- is neither the chicken nor the egg when it comes to creating terrorists. Rather, religion is one of many factors in the explosive brew of politics, culture and psychology that leads fanatics to target innocents -- and take their own lives in the process." "..some researchers have found that the most religious Muslims can also be the most resistant to radicalization. David Schanzer, director of the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security in Durham, N.C., studied 188 cases of Muslim Americans who have been connected to terrorism activities, and found that none were raised with "traditional, intensive religious training." Instead, they "adopted fundamentalist views as they radicalized."  Download.

Hansen, Birthe, At definere terrorisme (Kbh. Univ. Institut for Statskundskab 2003/2008)
Download.

Paper, Robert A., "It's the Occupation, Stupid" (Foreign Policy, Oct. 18, 2010)
"More than 95% of all suicide attacs are in response to foreing occupation, according to extensive research that we conducted at the University of Chicago's Project on Security and Terrorism, where we examined every one of the over 2,200 suicide attacs accross the world from 1980 to the present day". Download.

Juergensmeyer, Mark, "From Bhindrawale to Bin Laden: The Rise of Religious Violence" (Presentation at Arizona State University/ National Bureau of Asian Research Conference, October 14-15 2004 “Religion and Conflict in Asia: Disrupting Violence”
Download.

Stern, Jessica, Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill (2003)
Read an excerpt of the book here. "In this book, terrorism will be defined as an act or threat of violence against noncombatants with the objective of exacting revenge, intimidating, or otherwise influencing an audience. This definition avoids limiting perpetrator or purpose. It allows for a range of possible actors (states or their surrogates, international groups, or a single individual) and all putative goals (political, religious, or economic). This book is concerned only with terrorists who claim to be seeking religious goals, i.e, religious terrorism. It is limited to three monotheistic religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism."

"Wilson, Henry S., "Terrorism and Religions" (Bangalore Theological Forum 34(1), June 2002, pp. 58-74)
"The proposal outlined in this paper, asking for religiously affiliated people to work together to face the issues of terrorism, violence and injustice, in not meant to diminish the important role that all other human agencies, state sponsored or voluntary organizations, groups and movements, have to play. Rather, this is to uphold the importance of religion in people’s worldview, especially in our historical times when many of the age-old values are crumbling. This makes people insecure, who then turn to familiar heritages that are still preserved in historical and enduring world religious traditions. Islam, Christianity, and Judaism have a major share in this, being the faith of half of world’s humanity today."Download.

Zalman, Amy, "Religious Terrorism. A Short Primer on Religion and Terrorism"
"The world's great religions all have both peaceful and violent messages from which believers can choose. Religious terrorists and violent extremists share the decision to interpret religion to justify violence, whether they are Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, or Sikh." Download.

Sosis, Richard & Candace S. Alcorta, "Militants and Martys. Evolutionary Perspectives on Religion and Terrorism". (Evolution's Imprint. Psychology and the Roots of Terrorism, pp. 105-124)
"If terrorists in general, and suicide bombers in particular, are not crazed religious zealots, what then is the relationship between religion and terrorism? Various researchers have argued that terrorists have political, not religious goals (Juergensmeyer 2003; Bloom 2005; Pape 2005). Religion is not the root cause of conflicts but is rather a tool used by terrorists to achieve their goals. Recast in evolutionary terms, religious beliefs, rituals, and institutions are proximate mechanisms that facilitate otherwise improbable behavioral outcomes. Here we review four main reasons why religion serves as an effective mechanism for terrorists". Download.

 

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